Table 4

Factors associated with households having out-of-pocket medical expenditure exceeding 40% of household income

OR (95% CI)
Survey year (2003 as base level)
 20080.70 (0.51 to 0.95)
 20130.65 (0.47 to 0.90)
Area (west is base level)
 East0.79 (0.57 to 1.10)
 Central0.71 (0.48 to 1.05)
Income group (first quintile is base level)
 Second quintile0.32 (0.27 to 0.37)
 Third quintile0.19 (0.16 to 0.23)
 Fourth quintile0.14 (0.12 to 0.17)
 Fifth quintile0.08 (0.06 to 0.09)
Household size (1–2 person as base level)
 3–4 persons0.43 (0.40 to 0.47)
 Over 5 persons0.22 (0.18 to 0.27)
If any member in household is below 5 years old (no is base level)
 Yes1.00 (0.89 to 1.11)
If any member in household is over 60 years old (no is base level)
 Yes1.07 (0.97 to 1.18)
If any member in household has a chronic disease (no is base level)
 Yes2.65 (2.38 to 2.95)
If any member in household used inpatient service (no is base level)
 Yes5.45 (4.77 to 6.22)
  • Please refer to online supplemental table 2 for a comparison of models.