Table 1

Characteristics of surveyed households and individuals in 2003, 2008 and 2013

200320082013
Households
N3 807*33 95843 478
Average household size3.83.33.0
Highest education of all family members (%)
 None and primary41.834.233.5
 Secondary56.763.661.5
 College and above1.62.14.9
With member over age 60 years (%)34.034.240.2
With member below 5 years (%)16.216.416.3
Any member has chronic disease (%)36.435.642.1
Any member use inpatient medical services†(%)7.413.217.6
% households living within 20 min distance from the nearest health facility (%)84.184.688.6
Annual household income (US$)‡1336.52016.43495.3
Annual household out-of-pocket medical expenditure (US$)97.7181.0308.2
Individuals
N(individual)16 950121 870141 513
Gender
 Male (%)49.549.949.6
Age (mean)34.736.739.4
Education (%)
 None and primary64.451.447.5
 Secondary35.047.750.0
 College and above0.60.92.5
Annual per capita income (US$)3526111 165
  • All parameters changed significantly from 2003 to 2008 and 2013 (p<0.001) except for gender composition.

  • *NCMS pilot started in only four provinces in 2003, whereas in 2008 and 2013, NCMS achieved over 95% coverage in rural China, therefore number enrolled was lower than in 2008 and 2013.

  • †inpatient service utilisation excludes in-hospital baby delivery.

  • ‡income was CPI-adjusted with reference to 2003; US$1=¥8.2 in 2003; US$1=¥6.90 in 2008; US$1=¥6.18 in 2013.

  • NCMS, New Cooperative Medical Scheme.