Table 1

Examples of policies to support nurturing care from preconception through adolescence

Preconception/prenatalNewbornInfancyPreschoolMiddle childhoodAdolescence
Enabling environmentsUniversal healthcare, ban on environmental toxins (eg, lead); free preschooling, primary and secondary schooling, child protection; safe water and sanitation; inclusive policies and services for people with disabilities
HealthInclusive preventive and promotive quality healthcare for children and adolescents
Prenatal services, smoking, drug use cessationBaby-friendly hospital initiativeImmunisationWell-child evaluationsPromotion of physical activityAccess to sexual and reproductive services
NutritionEquitable access to safe, nutritious and affordable foods
Healthy diet, micronutrients, food assistanceExclusive breastfeedingExclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding, micronutrientsFood assistance, healthy school mealsFood assistance, healthy school mealsFood assistance, healthy school meals
Security and safetyProtection for children and adolescents
Violence preventionClean water, air, and sanitationClean water, air, and sanitationInjury preventionBullying preventionPrevention of child marriage
LearningFree and inclusive education
Prenatal carePregnancy and birth preparationParental education and quality careQuality care, education and parental supportQuality instruction and parental engagementVocational and life skills training
Responsive relationshipsCare for children and adolescents
Prevent gender-based violencePromote skin-to-skin contactParent–infant attachment supportPrevent harsh punishmentPromote prosocial peer relationsPartnership and leadership opportunities