Table 2

Findings from quantitative studies (N=20) and mixed-methods study (N=1)

Quantitative studies
First author, publication yearCountryObjectivesViolence outcomePerpetrator typeConfounders
(if adjusted)
Key findingsQuality
(0–10.0)*
Epstein, 202040 Various
(Sub-Saharan Africa)
To assess the association between drought and IPV in 19 sub-Saharan African countries.Physical, psychological, sexual; controlling behaviour (IPV)Intimate partnerAge, literacy, marital status, number of births, household size, rural/urban residence, partner’s age and educationWomen living in severe drought vs no drought, marginal risk difference (RD) of reporting a controlling partner in percentage points from logistic regression models=3.0 (p<0.001; 95% CI 1.3 to 4.6); experiencing physical violence=0.8 (p=0.019; 95% CI 0.1 to 1.5); sexual violence=1.2 (p=0.001; 95% CI 0.4 to 2.0).
Mild/moderate vs no drought, marginal RD of experiencing physical violence in percentage points=0.7 (p=0.003; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.1); sexual violence=0.7 (p=0.001; 95% CI 0.3 to 1.2).
10.0
Sanz-Barbero, 201841 SpainTo assess the effect and impact of heat waves on IPV and IPF risk in Madrid.IPV, femicideIntimate partnerVariables related to seasonality and 1–5 day lag in effect of heat exposureIPF risk increased 3 days after heat waves while IPV reports increased 1 day after. Attributable risk for femicide=1.40 (p=0.048; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.97); IPV reports=1.02 (p<0.001; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.03); Help line calls=1.02 (p=0.022; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.03).9.0
Cerna-Turoff, 202050 HaitiTo examine the effect of internal displacement after the 2010 Haiti earthquake on violence against girls and boys.Physical, psychological, sexualFamily member; caregiver; authority figure; otherAge, household characteristics, predisaster experience of range of violent acts, matched for girls and for boysNo association between earthquake-related internal displacement and past 12 month physical violence by family member (OR=0.90; p=0.795); physical violence by authority figure (OR=1.67; p=0.154); emotional violence by family member (OR=1.11; p=0.875); sexual violence by anyone (OR=1.29; p=0.597) against girls.8.3
Temple, 201146 USATo examine the effect of evacuation during Hurricane Ike on rates of physical and sexual dating violence exhibited by youth.Physical, sexual (IPV)Intimate partnerRace, ethnicity, ageCompared with evacuating boys, OR of non-evacuating boys physically assaulting their intimate partner=3.19 (p<0.01; 95% CI 1.50 to 6.80); sexually assaulting their intimate partners=3.73 (p<0.01; 95% CI 1.50 to 9.28).7.5
Anastario, 200947 USATo assess change in GBV rates one and 2 years after Hurricane Katrina among internally displaced women living in trailer parks in Mississippi.IPV; physical, sexualAny; intimate partnerAge, sex, income, ethnicity, marital status, number days lived in trailer parkLifetime IPV prevalence increased in the year postdisaster (12.5% in 2006, 34.4% in 2007; p=0.001) and did not return to normal during displacement.7.5
Harville, 201137 USATo assess the relationship between exposure to Hurricane Katrina and reported IPV among post-partum women in Louisiana.Physical, psychological, sexual; aggressive behaviour (IPV)Intimate partnerAge, income, education, race, parity, marital status at deliveryExperiencing disaster-related damage increased likelihood of reported experience of IPV and aggressive behaviour in the past 6 months. RR between storm damage and verbal abuse=1.23 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.48); being pushed/shoved/slapped=5.28 (95% CI 1.93 to 14.45); punched/kicked/beat up=8.25 (95% CI 1.68 to 40.47).7.5
Rao, 202042 IndiaTo examine the prevalence and correlates of IPV in four Indian states before and after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.Physical, psychological, sexual (IPV)Intimate partnerSocioeconomic factors, age, religion, alcohol useWomen living in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh (severely/moderately affected) had higher odds (1.41 (p<0.05); 1.98 (p<0.001); 1.85 (p<0.001)) of reporting IPV than women in Karnataka (unaffected) after the disaster. A decade after (2015–16), odds were two times higher in Tamil Nadu (2.42 (p<0.001)) and Andhra Pradesh (1.99 (p<0.001)) than Karnataka. Belonging to disadvantaged groups increased odds of IPV 1 year after disaster.7.5
Weitzman, 201643 HaitiTo compare changes in IPV reported by women in the regions most affected and moderately affected by the 2010 earthquake.Physical, sexual (IPV)Intimate partnerAge, education, history of family violence, partner’s alcohol consumption, marital status, number of surviving childrenWomen in most severely affected areas had higher probability of physical and sexual IPV one to 2 years after disaster.7.5
Molyneaux, 202038 AustraliaTo examine experiences of violence victimisation among communities of differing levels of bushfire exposure.AnyNot specifiedGender, age, educationRates of violence against women increased with higher bushfire exposure (high affected area=7.4%; low affected=1.0%; p=0.003). Negative change in income significantly associated with increased violence against women in high bushfire affected areas (OR=4.68; p=0.004; 95% CI 1.62 to 3.54).6.7
Sakurai, 201648 JapanTo examine the relationship between the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and IPV against pregnant women in Miyagi Prefecture.Physical, psychological (IPV)Intimate partnerAge, marital status, household incomeIncidence of physical IPV in north coastal Miyagi=5.9%, significantly higher than inland (1.3%; p=0.0007) and nationwide incidence (1.5%; p<0.0001). No significant difference in incidence of psychological IPV between three areas of Miyagi or nationwide.6.7
Madkour,
201151
USATo assess changes in dating violence victimisation among youth before and after exposure to Hurricane Katrina.Any (IPV); sexualNot specifiedAge, ethnicity, genderNo significant difference in odds of experiencing dating violence predisaster (2005) and postdisaster (2007)=1.16 (p=0.155; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.39); and experiencing forced sex=0.92 (p=0.533; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.16).5.8
Chan, 201159 ChinaTo assess the impact of the 2008 earthquake in Sichuan on families already experiencing DV.Physical, psychologicalIntimate partner; known person; family member; strangerNone reportedPrevalence of physical violence pre-earthquake=5%; postearthquake=6.6%. Prevalence of psychological violence pre-earthquake=10.5%; postearthquake=19.3% (significance not reported).5.0
Frasier, 200439 USATo assess prevalence and incidence of IPV among female workers in North Carolina and perceived effect of Hurricane Floyd & floods on IPV.Physical, psychologicalIntimate partnerMultivariate analysis conducted but confounders unclearNo significant difference in predisaster and postdisaster prevalence of physical violence (pre=6%; post=4%); verbal abuse (12%; 8%); threats (8%; 4%). High rates of ever physically abused (28%) in sample compared with national rates.5.0
Sloand, 201758 HaitiTo describe violence among internally displaced adolescent girls after the 2010 Haiti earthquake.Physical, psychological, sexualFamily member; intimate partnerAge, educationNo significant difference (p=0.510) in predisaster (59%) and postdisaster (64.1%) prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual violence. After controlling for age and education, odds of being sexually abused postearthquake=1.41 (95% CI 1.115 to 1.791).5.0
Tanoue, 201956 JapanTo explore changes in IPV prevalence over time in three areas of Miyagi Prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake.Physical, psychological (IPV)Intimate partnerMultivariate analysis conducted but confounders unclearBetween 2011 and 2013, postdisaster prevalence of psychological IPV in north coastal area of Miyagi decreased from 2.7% in 2011, 1.5% in 2012, 1.3% in 2013 (Ptrend=0.04). Postdisaster physical IPV in south coastal area decreased from 2.7% in 2011, 1.5% in 2012, 1.3% in 2013 (Ptrend=0.03).4.2
Kolbe, 2010 53 HaitiTo assess the consequences of the 2010 earthquake on the population living in Port-au-Prince.SexualStranger; intimate partner; friend/neighbourUnclear29 individuals in sample sexually assaulted (rape n=16; forced oral sex n=7; unwanted sexual touching n=5; forced witness of sexual acts n=1). 10 813 (95% CI 6726 to 14 900) individuals estimated to have been sexually assaulted in Port-au-Prince 6 weeks after earthquake.4.2
Lai, 202054 HaitiTo examine the prevalence of and relationships between violence among youth exposed to the 2010 earthquake.Physical, psychological, sexualFamily member; caregiver; authority figureNone reportedHalf of women reported experiencing at least one type of violence. Emotional=27.8% (95% CI 25.02 to 30.57); physical by parent/caregiver=22.03% (95% CI 18.11 to 25.94); physical by authority figure=10.20% (95% CI 7.54 to 12.87); sexual=23.01% (95% CI 19.19 to 26.84).4.2
Sahni, 201657 CanadaTo describe the public health surveillance response following southern Alberta floods in 2013.Physical, sexualNot specifiedNone reportedThreefold increase in rate of emergency department visit from reported sexual assault postflood compared with preflood=3.18 (95% CI 1.29 to 7.84). No change in rate from violent behaviour.4.0
Campbell, 201549 HaitiTo investigate GBV before and after the 2010 earthquake among displaced women in Port-au-Prince.Physical, psychological, sexualIntimate partnerNone reportedHigh rate of physical, psychological, and sexual violence predisaster (71.2%) and postdisaster (75.0%). No significant difference between rates (p=0.266).3.3
Fagen, 201152 USATo examine the prevalence of violence experienced by female university students in New Orleans pre- and postHurricane Katrina.SexualNot specifiedUnclearNo significant difference in prevalence of sexual violence predisaster and postdisaster (size of effect and statistic unreported).2.5
Mixed-methods study
Azad, 201355 BangladeshTo examine flood-induced vulnerabilities among women living in Sirajganj District.Physical, psychological, sexual; IPVIntimate partner; neighbour; stranger; family memberNone reportedHigh prevalence of harassment=35%; psychological violence=33%; Verbal abuse=4%; Physical violence=34%; IPV=39% (significance not reported).3.1
  • *Based on the adapted NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Design with 12 criteria for quantitative studies (online supplemental appendix 5); and adapted NIH tool, CASP checklist and Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool35 for mixed-methods study (online supplemental appendix 7). Scores are calculated by dividing the sum of criteria met by the total number of criteria. Scores between 0 and 3.3 were classified as low, 3.3–6.6 as medium and 6.6–10.0 as high.

  • CASP, Critical Appraisal Skills Programme; IPV, intimate partner violence; NIH, National Institutes of Health.