Table 6

Logistic regression analyses predicting social functioning outcomes by childhood adversity (financial strain/conflict) with adult socioeconomic disadvantage as the mediating variable (khb method)

TotalDirectIndirectMediated %
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Lack of social interaction with friends, relatives, colleagues—interacting never/less than monthly
Childhood adversity
 Strain (−), conflict (−)111
 Strain (+), conflict (−)1.291.09 to 1.541.150.97 to 1.371.121.08 to 1.1745.1
 Strain (−), conflict (+)1.180.870 to 1.6001.140.84 to 1.551.030.99 to 1.07
 Strain (+), conflict (+)1.821.42 to 2.331.611.26 to 2.071.131.08 to 1.1820.0
Social isolation—no close ties
Childhood adversity
 Strain (−), conflict (−)111
 Strain (+), conflict (−)1.331.04 to 1.691.080.85 to 1.381.231.14 to 1.3272.4
 Strain (−), conflict (+)1.460.900 to 2.371.390.85 to 2.251.050.99 to 1.12
 Strain (+), conflict (+)1.761.24 to 2.501.431.004 to 2.031.231.15 to 1.3237.0
Social distrust—three lowest social trust categories
Childhood adversity
 Strain (−), conflict (−)111
 Strain (+), conflict (−)1.611.29 to 2.011.371.09 to 1.711.181.11 to 1.2534.2
 Strain (−), conflict (+)1.841.34 to 2.531.771.29 to 2.431.040.99 to 1.10
 Strain (+), conflict (+)2.782.07 to 3.722.351.75 to 3.151.181.12 to 1.2516.3
Respondent ever divorced or had civil union dissolved*
Childhood adversity
 Strain (−), conflict (−)111
 Strain (+), conflict (−)1.140.98 to 1.341.080.92 to 1.261.061.03 to 1.09
 Strain (−), conflict (+)1.621.33 to 1.981.601.31 to 1.951.020.99 to 1.04
 Strain (+), conflict (+)2.101.71 to 2.581.951.59 to 2.401.081.04 to 1.119.8
  • Note on the khb method: the total effect is the association between the predictor and outcome (not adjusted for the mediator), the direct effect is the association between the predictor and outcome (adjusted for the mediator), and the indirect effect is the difference between the two in terms of log odds. The mediated percentage is the proportion of the total effect that can be explained by the mediator (indirect effect/total effect).

  • Results in bold are statistically significant (p<0.05). All models adjusted for age, gender, parental occupation and education, and country. Mediation analysis was only performed when the total effect was significant.

  • *The sample was restricted to respondents who was not in the category ‘never been married or in a legally registered civil union’ (ie, sample n=24 796).

  • khb, Karlson Holm Breen.