Table 2

Characteristics of the study sample

CharacteristicCategoryNWeighted %
Total participants35 475
SexFemale18 76651.5
Age (years)Mean (SD)47.6 (18.9)
EducationISCED I, less than lower secondary381112.7
ISCED II, lower secondary633821.1
ISCED IIIb, lower tier upper secondary611120.6
ISCED IIIa, upper tier upper secondary595913.2
ISCED IV, advanced vocational, subdegree494412.5
ISCED V1, lower tertiary education, BA-level38528.3
ISCED V2, higher tertiary education, ≥MA-level423811.7
OccupationUnemployed or homemaker6482.3
Elementary occupations333210.8
Plant and machine operators and assemblers24917.5
Craft and related trade workers373911.2
Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers10443.4
Services and sales workers554616.9
Clerical support workers28299.6
Technicians and associate professionals479215.7
Professionals603615.8
Higher administrator occupations25036.9
Financial strainVery difficult on present income16423.7
Difficult on present income544814.9
Coping on present income16 24647.8
Living comfortably on present income11 86233.6
Childhood adversityStrain (−), conflict (−)26 87977.4
Strain (+), conflict (−)392110.5
Strain (−), conflict (+)21156.7
Strain (+), conflict (+)17515.3
One or more hampering physical health problemsPresent15 70146.9
CancerPresent16363.6
ObesityPresent527815.8
Self-rated health—rated bad or very badPresent27398.1
Unable to get needed medical consultationPresent424414.6
Current smokerPresent840425.4
Binge drinking—daily/weekly/monthlyPresent974426.7
No sport or physical activity within past 7 daysPresent840125.5
Fruit and vegetable consumed never/less than weeklyPresent5191.5
Sedentary behaviour, ie, >3 hours of TV per dayPresent641417.7
DepressionPresent646918.5
Dissatisfied with life—lowest three life satisfaction categories (0–2 out of 10)Present14944.4
Unhappy—lowest three happiness categories (0–2 out of 10)Present7391.8
Lonely—most/all of the time within past weekPresent23586.8
Feeling unsafe in local area—unsafe/very unsafePresent683420.1
Lack of social interaction—interacting never/less than monthlyPresent35638.3
Social isolation—no close tiesPresent16013.8
Social distrust—three lowest social trust categories (0–2 out of 10)Present18295.8
Respondent ever divorced*Present570120.3
  • Sampling weights were used for the calculation of proportions and means (SD).

  • *The sample was restricted to respondents who was not in the category ‘never been married or in a legally registered civil union’ (ie, sample restricted to n=24 796).