Table 2

Existing international prison health concordats

Existing international prison health concordatsBackground information
United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners 2015 (‘the Mandela Rules’)These rules were first approved in 1957, and in 2015, they were revised and adopted as the Nelson Mandela Rules to honour the legacy of the late President of South Africa, who spent 27 years in prison in the course of his struggle, referred to above.42 These rules promote humane conditions of imprisonment, raise awareness about prisoners being a continuous part of society and value the work of prison staff as a social service of particular importance.42
United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders 2010 (‘the Bangkok Rules’)These rules were adopted by the UN General Assembly on 21 December 2010 to address the lack of focus on the needs of women in prisons, particularly with respect to healthcare, education and employment, and family contact.43
United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for Non-custodial Measures 1990 (‘the Tokyo Rules’)Since 1990, these rules have urged the United Nations Member States to develop non-custodial measures within the legal system to reduce the rate of imprisonment. They range from using pretrial detention as a last resort to developing alternative sanction measures within the community by considering competing interests, such as human rights, social justice and rehabilitation.44
United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice 1985 (‘the Beijing Rules’)These 1985 rules seek to promote the health, well-being, and welfare of young people in prisons and assist them to lead a meaningful, crime-free life that fosters personal growth in the community.45
United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty 1990 (‘the Havana Rules’)These 1990 rules urge that the imprisonment of young people should be a last resort. To foster reintegration into society, juvenile institutions should attend to these young individuals’ health and welfare needs during detainment, with consideration for early release.46