Table 3

CSR activities reported by interviewees

SectorNo of countriesExamples reported by participants
Health7Building hospitals/ cancer wards/ health facilities (generally and in farming areas specifically), funding health programmes such as screening for cancer, hypertension and diabetes
Education6Building schools (generally and in farming areas specifically), providing scholarships
Environment5Planting trees, recycling and waste management
Tobacco farming and communities (overlapping with health and education)5Providing seedlings and technical support for farmers, building solar plants, water plants, health facilities and schools, and offering scholarships
Communities (not explicitly referring to farming communities)4Building a public library, providing chairs for a community hall, providing umbrellas and stationery
Local authorities4Renovating and painting local police stations, building a library for a local court, providing drinking water at the district administration
Sports4Sponsoring local sports teams, sponsoring football matches and tournaments, sponsoring sports news
Culture2Sponsoring art exhibitions, funding a music centre, giving awards to artists
Religion1Sponsoring a religious festival