Table 2

Factors associated with social isolation using multivariable logistic regression analyses

Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age, 10-year increase1.06 (1.03 to 1.09)
Women (vs men)2.17 (2.06 to 2.29)
Education attainment level
Presecondary (vs secondary or postsecondary)
1.37 (1.29 to 1.45)
Unemployed vs employed1.16 (1.10 to 1.22)
Residence in
urban (vs rural)
1.64 (1.55 to 1.73)
Country income level (low as reference)
 Middle vs low2.41 (2.25 to 2.57)
 High vs low2.03 (1.85 to 2.22)
Current smoking (vs former or never smoking)1.33 (1.25 to 1.41)
Low diet score (lowest tertile of diet score) (vs the other two tertiles)1.12 (1.07 to 1.18)
Current alcohol use (vs former or never drinking)1.04 (0.98 to 1.10)
Physical inactivity (vs WHO recommended physical activity)1.04 (0.97 to 1.11)
Number of comorbidities≥2 (vs one or no comorbidities)1.06 (0.97 to 1.15)
Number of disabilities≥2 (vs one or no disabilities)1.27 (1.20 to 1.35)
  • ORs were adjusted for age, sex, education attainment, employment status, residence area, country income level, smoking, alcohol, presence of physical inactivity, diet score, presence of comorbidities and presence of disabilities.