Table 2

Sample characteristics by mental health outcomes (n=849)

Total sample N (%) or M (SD)AnxietyDepression
Screened positive
N (%) or M (SD)
Screened negative
N (%) or M (SD)
χ2 or t-testScreened positive
N (%) or M (SD)
Screened negative
N (%) or M (SD)
χ2 or t-test
Total849 (100.00%)389 (45.82%)460 (54.18%)432 (50.88%)417 (49.12%)
Demographic (control) variables
 Gender
  Non-binary583 (68.67)248 (63.75)335 (72.83)0.017*276 (63.89)307 (73.62)0.004**
  Trans feminine233 (27.44)124 (31.88)109 (23.70)140 (32.41)93 (22.30)
  Trans masculine33 (3.89)17 (4.37)16 (3.48)16 (3.70)17 (4.08)
 Age (years)
  18–29437 (51.47)213 (54.76)224 (48.70)<0.001***243 (56.25)194 (46.54)<0.001***
  30–39249 (29.33)129 (33.16)120 (26.09)137 (31.71)112 (26.86)
  20–49112 (13.19)39 (10.03)73 (15.87)42 (9.72)70 (16.79)
  50+51 (6.01)8 (2.06)43 (9.35)10 (2.31)41 (9.83)
 Education attained
  Less than college177 (20.97)95 (24.48)82 (17.98)0.021*112 (25.99)65 (15.74)<0.001***
  Some college or more667 (79.03)293 (75.52)374 (82.02)319 (74.01)348 (84.26)
 Socioeconomic level status
  Lower127 (14.99)79 (20.31)48 (10.48)<0.001***87 (20.19)40 (9.62)<0.001***
  Middle683 (80.64)293 (75.32)390 (85.15)323 (74.94)360 (86.54)
  Upper37 (4.37)17 (4.37)20 (4.37)21 (4.87)16 (3.85)
 WHO region
  Europe382 (46.30)189 (49.74)193 (43.37)<0.001***224 (53.21)158 (39.11)<0.001***
  South-East Asia215 (26.06)64 (16.84)151 (33.93)64 (15.20)151 (37.38)
  Americas81 (9.82)48 (12.63)33 (7.42)46 (10.93)35 (8.66)
  Eastern Mediterranean76 (9.21)47 (12.37)29 (6.52)48 (11.40)28 (6.93)
  Western Pacific40 (4.85)16 (4.21)24 (5.39)21 (4.99)19 (4.70)
  Africa31 (3.76)16 (4.21)15 (3.37)18 (4.28)13 (3.22)
 Immigrant status
  Yes103 (12.32)53 (13.84)50 (11.04)0.35262 (14.62)41 (9.95)0.075
  No662 (79.19)295 (77.02)367 (81.02)323 (76.18)339 (82.28)
  Unsure71 (8.49)35 (9.14)36 (7.95)39 (9.20)32 (7.77)
Natural environmental-level variable
COVID-19 pandemic environment
 Ever lack masked
  Yes112 (13.22)69 (17.74)43 (9.39)<0.001***76 (17.59)36 (8.67)<0.001***
  No735 (86.78)320 (82.26)415 (90.16)356 (82.41)379 (91.33)
 In a stay-at-home order
  Yes651 (76.86)299 (77.06)352 (76.69)0.898326 (75.64)325 (78.12)0.391
  No196 (23.14)89 (22.94)107 (23.31)105 (24.36)91 (21.88)
Social/Community-level variables
Socioeconomic loss impact
 Reduced income (anticipated)
  Yes607 (72.87)278 (72.77)329 (72.95)0.955315 (74.12)292 (71.57)0.408
  No226 (27.13)104 (27.23)122 (27.05)110 (25.88)116 (28.43)
 Job loss/Unemployment (anticipated)
  Yes132 (15.64)86 (22.11)46 (10.11)<0.001***87 (20.19)45 (10.90)<0.001***
  No712 (84.36)303 (77.89)409 (89.89)344 (79.81)368 (89.10)
 Insurance loss (anticipated)
  Yes99 (16.39)57 (21.27)42 (12.50)0.004**63 (20.59)36 (12.08)<0.005**
  No505 (83.61)211 (78.73)294 (87.50)243 (79.41)262 (87.92)
 Cutting meals
  Yes299 (37.52)189 (51.50)110 (25.58)<0.001***201 (49.63)98 (25.00)<0.001***
  No498 (62.48)178 (48.50)320 (74.42)204 (50.37)294 (75.00)
Reduction in gender affirmation services
 Hormone therapy† (n=346)
  Yes115 (33.24)70 (45.75)45 (23.32)<0.001***78 (46.99)37 (20.56)<0.001***
  No231 (66.76)83 (54.25)148 (76.68)88 (53.01)143 (79.44)
 Surgical aftercare† (n=318)
  Yes99 (31.13)53 (39.55)46 (25.00)0.006**59 (40.97)40 (22.99)0.001**
  No219 (68.87)81 (60.45)138 (75.00)85 (59.03)134 (77.01)
 Cosmetic supplies and services† (n=459)
  Yes168 (36.60)93 (46.27)75 (29.07)<0.001***102 (45.54)66 (28.09)<0.001***
  No291 (63.40)108 (53.73)183 (70.93)122 (54.46)169 (71.91)
 Mental health counselling† (n=407)
  Yes168 (41.28)96 (52.46)72 (32.14)<0.001***102 (51.26)66 (31.73)<0.001***
  No239 (58.72)87 (47.54)152 (67.86)97 (48.74)142 (68.27)
 Body modifiers† (n=402)
  Yes134 (33.33)75 (42.86)59 (25.99)<0.001***85 (44.50)49 (23.22)<0.001***
  No268 (66.67)100 (57.14)168 (74.01)106 (55.50)162 (76.78)
  • Column percentages are reported. Sample sizes stratified by variables may not add up to total sample size due to missingness.

  • *P<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • †Applicable to participants who received gender affirmation services prior to COVID-19 pandemic.

  • Trans, transgender.