Table 2

Top three of 54 specific causes of YLDs by age, sex and modified WHO region, 2016

RegionAgeMenWomen
CauseYLD rate (UI)CauseYLD rate (UI)
Global0–27 daysProtein–energy malnutrition7 (4 to 9)Protein–energy malnutrition6 (4 to 9)
Iron-deficiency anaemia5 (3 to 7)Iron-deficiency anaemia5 (3 to 7)
Congenital anomalies3 (2 to 4)Congenital anomalies3 (2 to 4)
28 days–11 monthsIron-deficiency anaemia12 (8 to 18)Iron-deficiency anaemia11 (7 to 17)
Protein–energy malnutrition6 (4 to 8)Protein–energy malnutrition5 (3 to 7)
Diarrhoeal diseases4 (3 to 5)Diarrhoeal diseases4 (3 to 5)
1–4 yearsIron-deficiency anaemia9 (6 to 14)Iron-deficiency anaemia9 (6 to 13)
Protein–energy malnutrition5 (3 to 7)Protein–energy malnutrition4 (3 to 6)
Skin diseases3 (2 to 5)Skin diseases4 (2 to 5)
5–9 yearsIron-deficiency anaemia10 (6 to 15)Iron-deficiency anaemia9 (6 to 13)
Asthma3 (2 to 5)Asthma3 (2 to 5)
Skin diseases3 (2 to 4)Skin diseases3 (2 to 5)
10–14 yearsChildhood behavioural disorders5 (3 to 9)Iron-deficiency anaemia7 (5 to 10)
Iron-deficiency anaemia5 (3 to 8)Anxiety disorders4 (3 to 6)
Skin diseases3 (2 to 5)Skin diseases4 (3 to 6)
15–19 yearsChildhood behavioural disorders5 (3 to 7)Depressive disorders6 (4 to 9)
Depressive disorders4 (3 to 6)Iron-deficiency anaemia6 (4 to 9)
Skin diseases4 (3 to 6)Anxiety disorders5 (4 to 7)
African low-income and middle-income countries0–27 daysIron-deficiency anaemia9 (5 to 13)Iron-deficiency anaemia8 (5 to 11)
Protein–energy malnutrition5 (3 to 8)Neonatal sepsis and infections6 (3 to 11)
Diarrhoeal diseases4 (3 to 6)Protein–energy malnutrition5 (3 to 7)
28 days–11 monthsIron-deficiency anaemia19 (13 to 28)Iron-deficiency anaemia18 (12 to 26)
Protein–energy malnutrition6 (4 to 9)Diarrhoeal diseases5 (3 to 7)
Diarrhoeal diseases5 (3 to 7)Protein–energy malnutrition5 (3 to 7)
1–4 yearsIron-deficiency anaemia14 (9 to 20)Iron-deficiency anaemia13 (9 to 20)
Diarrhoeal diseases4 (3 to 6)Skin diseases4 (2 to 6)
Protein–energy malnutrition3 (2 to 5)Diarrhoeal diseases4 (3 to 5)
5–9 yearsIron-deficiency anaemia12 (7 to 18)Iron-deficiency anaemia10 (7 to 15)
Asthma4 (2 to 6)Asthma4 (2 to 6)
Other infectious and parasitic diseases3 (2 to 5)Skin diseases3 (2 to 5)
10–14 yearsIron-deficiency anaemia7 (4 to 12)Iron-deficiency anaemia7 (4 to 10)
Childhood behavioural disorders6 (3 to 9)Anxiety disorders4 (3 to 6)
Skin diseases4 (2 to 5)Skin diseases4 (3 to 6)
15–19 yearsDepressive disorders5 (3 to 8)Depressive disorders7 (5 to 10)
Childhood behavioural disorders5 (3 to 8)Iron-deficiency anaemia6 (4 to 10)
Other infectious and parasitic diseases5 (3 to 7)Anxiety disorders5 (3 to 7)
American low-income and middle-income countries0–27 daysIron-deficiency anaemia4 (2 to 6)Iron-deficiency anaemia5 (3 to 7)
Protein–energy malnutrition4 (2 to 6)Protein–energy malnutrition4 (2 to 6)
Diarrhoeal diseases3 (2 to 5)Diarrhoeal diseases4 (2 to 5)
28 days–11 monthsIron-deficiency anaemia9 (5 to 15)Iron-deficiency anaemia10 (6 to 15)
Diarrhoeal diseases5 (3 to 7)Diarrhoeal diseases5 (4 to 8)
Protein–energy malnutrition3 (2 to 5)Congenital anomalies3 (2 to 4)
1–4 yearsDiarrhoeal diseases5 (3 to 7)Diarrhoeal diseases5 (3 to 7)
Iron-deficiency anaemia5 (3 to 8)Iron-deficiency anaemia5 (3 to 8)
Skin diseases4 (2 to 6)Skin diseases4 (3 to 6)
5–9 yearsAsthma5 (3 to 8)Asthma5 (3 to 8)
Iron-deficiency anaemia4 (2 to 7)Iron-deficiency anaemia4 (2 to 6)
Skin diseases3 (2 to 4)Skin diseases3 (2 to 5)
10–14 yearsChildhood behavioural disorders6 (3 to 9)Anxiety disorders5 (3 to 7)
Skin diseases4 (2 to 5)Skin diseases4 (3 to 6)
Asthma4 (2 to 5)Asthma4 (2 to 6)
15–19 yearsChildhood behavioural disorders5 (3 to 8)Depressive disorders7 (4 to 10)
Alcohol and drug use disorders5 (3 to 7)Anxiety disorders6 (4 to 8)
Skin diseases4 (3 to 6)Migraine6 (3 to 8)
Eastern Mediterranean low-income and middle-income countries0–27 daysProtein–energy malnutrition7 (4 to 10)Protein–energy malnutrition8 (4 to 13)
Diarrhoeal diseases5 (3 to 7)Iron-deficiency anaemia5 (3 to 9)
Iron-deficiency anaemia5 (2 to 8)Congenital anomalies5 (3 to 6)
28 days–11 monthsIron-deficiency anaemia12 (7 to 21)Iron-deficiency anaemia11 (7 to 17)
Protein–energy malnutrition6 (3 to 10)Diarrhoeal diseases6 (4 to 8)
Diarrhoeal diseases6 (4 to 9)Protein–energy malnutrition5 (3 to 9)
1–4 yearsIron-deficiency anaemia10 (5 to 18)Iron-deficiency anaemia9 (6 to 14)
Diarrhoeal diseases4 (3 to 6)Diarrhoeal diseases4 (3 to 6)
Protein–energy malnutrition4 (2 to 5)Congenital anomalies4 (3 to 5)
5–9 yearsIron-deficiency anaemia11 (5 to 20)Iron-deficiency anaemia10 (6 to 15)
Congenital anomalies3 (2 to 4)Asthma3 (2 to 5)
Asthma3 (2 to 5)Congenital anomalies3 (2 to 4)
10–14 yearsIron-deficiency anaemia6 (3 to 12)Iron-deficiency anaemia7 (4 to 12)
Childhood behavioural disorders6 (3 to 9)Anxiety disorders4 (3 to 6)
Anxiety disorders4 (3 to 5)Migraine4 (2 to 6)
15–19 yearsDepressive disorders5 (3 to 7)Depressive disorders7 (4 to 10)
Childhood behavioural disorders5 (3 to 8)Migraine6 (4 to 9)
Anxiety disorders4 (3 to 6)Iron-deficiency anaemia6 (3 to 10)
European low-income and middle-income countries0–27 daysDiarrhoeal diseases4 (3 to 6)Congenital anomalies4 (3 to 6)
Protein–energy malnutrition4 (2 to 6)Diarrhoeal diseases4 (3 to 6)
Congenital anomalies4 (3 to 5)Iron-deficiency anaemia4 (2 to 6)
28 days–11 monthsIron-deficiency anaemia8 (5 to 13)Iron-deficiency anaemia8 (5 to 13)
Diarrhoeal diseases5 (3 to 8)Diarrhoeal diseases5 (3 to 7)
Congenital anomalies4 (2 to 5)Congenital anomalies4 (3 to 6)
1–4 yearsIron-deficiency anaemia5 (3 to 8)Iron-deficiency anaemia5 (3 to 8)
Congenital anomalies3 (2 to 4)Congenital anomalies4 (3 to 5)
Skin diseases3 (2 to 4)Skin diseases4 (2 to 5)
5–9 yearsIron-deficiency anaemia3 (2 to 5)Iron-deficiency anaemia5 (3 to 9)
Asthma3 (2 to 5)Asthma3 (2 to 5)
Childhood behavioural disorders3 (1 to 4)Congenital anomalies3 (2 to 4)
10–14 yearsChildhood behavioural disorders6 (3 to 10)Migraine4 (3 to 6)
Skin diseases3 (2 to 4)Iron-deficiency anaemia4 (2 to 7)
Anxiety disorders3 (2 to 4)Childhood behavioural disorders4 (2 to 7)
15–19 yearsChildhood behavioural disorders5 (3 to 8)Migraine6 (4 to 9)
Depressive disorders4 (3 to 6)Depressive disorders6 (4 to 8)
Alcohol and drug use disorders4 (2 to 6)Anxiety disorders4 (3 to 6)
Southeast Asian low-income and middle-income countries0–27 daysProtein–energy malnutrition14 (9 to 20)Protein–energy malnutrition14 (9 to 20)
Iron-deficiency anaemia6 (4 to 9)Iron-deficiency anaemia5 (3 to 7)
Preterm birth complications4 (3 to 6)Preterm birth complications4 (2 to 5)
28 days–11 monthsIron-deficiency anaemia15 (10 to 23)Iron-deficiency anaemia14 (9 to 20)
Protein–energy malnutrition12 (8 to 17)Protein–energy malnutrition12 (8 to 16)
Diarrhoeal diseases3 (2 to 5)Diarrhoeal diseases3 (2 to 5)
1–4 yearsIron-deficiency anaemia15 (10 to 22)Iron-deficiency anaemia14 (9 to 21)
Protein–energy malnutrition11 (7 to 16)Protein–energy malnutrition11 (7 to 16)
Skin diseases3 (2 to 5)Skin diseases4 (2 to 5)
5–9 yearsIron-deficiency anaemia19 (12 to 27)Iron-deficiency anaemia17 (11 to 25)
Other infectious and parasitic diseases3 (2 to 5)Other infectious and parasitic diseases3 (2 to 4)
Preterm birth complications3 (2 to 4)Skin diseases3 (2 to 5)
10–14 yearsIron-deficiency anaemia9 (5 to 14)Iron-deficiency anaemia14 (10 to 20)
Childhood behavioural disorders5 (3 to 9)Migraine4 (2 to 6)
Skin diseases3 (2 to 5)Skin diseases4 (2 to 6)
15–19 yearsChildhood behavioural disorders4 (2 to 7)Iron-deficiency anaemia13 (9 to 19)
Skin diseases4 (3 to 6)Migraine6 (3 to 9)
Iron-deficiency anaemia4 (2 to 6)Depressive disorders5 (3 to 7)
Western Pacific low-income and middle-income countries0–27 daysProtein–energy malnutrition2 (1 to 3)Congenital anomalies2 (1 to 3)
Congenital anomalies2 (1 to 2)Iron-deficiency anaemia2 (1 to 3)
Iron-deficiency anaemia2 (1 to 2)Protein–energy malnutrition1 (1 to 2)
28 days–11 monthsIron-deficiency anaemia3 (2 to 5)Iron-deficiency anaemia3 (2 to 5)
Diabetes mellitus, and other endocrine, blood, immune disorders2 (1 to 3)Diabetes mellitus, and other endocrine, blood, immune disorders2 (1 to 3)
Skin diseases2 (1 to 2)Congenital anomalies2 (1 to 3)
1–4 yearsSkin diseases3 (2 to 4)Skin diseases3 (2 to 5)
Diabetes mellitus, and other endocrine, blood, immune disorders2 (1 to 3)Congenital anomalies2 (1 to 2)
Upper respiratory infections and otitis media2 (1 to 3)Upper respiratory infections and otitis media2 (1 to 3)
5–9 yearsSkin diseases3 (2 to 4)Asthma3 (2 to 5)
Asthma3 (2 to 4)Skin diseases3 (2 to 5)
Childhood behavioural disorders2 (1 to 3)Congenital anomalies2 (1 to 2)
10–14 yearsChildhood behavioural disorders5 (3 to 8)Skin diseases4 (3 to 6)
Skin diseases4 (2 to 5)Anxiety disorders4 (3 to 6)
Anxiety disorders3 (2 to 4)Childhood behavioural disorders2 (1 to 4)
15–19 yearsSkin diseases4 (3 to 7)Skin diseases5 (3 to 7)
Childhood behavioural disorders4 (2 to 6)Depressive disorders5 (3 to 7)
Depressive disorders3 (2 to 5)Anxiety disorders4 (3 to 6)
High-income countries0–27 daysCongenital anomalies3 (2 to 4)Congenital anomalies3 (2 to 4)
Upper respiratory infections and otitis media1 (1 to 2)Upper respiratory infections and otitis media1 (1 to 2)
Protein–energy malnutrition1 (1 to 2)Diarrhoeal diseases1 (1 to 2)
28 days–11 monthsCongenital anomalies3 (2 to 4)Iron-deficiency anaemia3 (2 to 6)
Iron-deficiency anaemia2 (1 to 5)Congenital anomalies3 (2 to 4)
Upper respiratory infections and otitis media2 (1 to 4)Upper respiratory infections and otitis media2 (1 to 4)
1–4 yearsSkin diseases3 (2 to 5)Skin diseases3 (2 to 5)
Congenital anomalies3 (2 to 4)Congenital anomalies3 (2 to 4)
Upper respiratory infections and otitis media3 (1 to 4)Upper respiratory infections and otitis media3 (1 to 4)
5–9 yearsAsthma4 (2 to 6)Asthma3 (2 to 5)
Childhood behavioural disorders3 (2 to 5)Skin diseases3 (2 to 4)
Congenital anomalies2 (2 to 3)Anxiety disorders2 (2 to 3)
10–14 yearsChildhood behavioural disorders6 (3 to 9)Anxiety disorders6 (4 to 8)
Anxiety disorders4 (3 to 5)Depressive disorders5 (3 to 7)
Skin diseases4 (2 to 5)Skin diseases4 (3 to 6)
15–19 yearsAlcohol and drug use disorders7 (4 to 9)Depressive disorders11 (7 to 16)
Depressive disorders5 (4 to 8)Anxiety disorders7 (5 to 10)
Childhood behavioural disorders5 (3 to 8)Migraine6 (4 to 9)
  • UI, uncertainty interval; YLD, years lost due to disability.