Table 2

Deterministic predictions of incremental health impact and incremental cost-effectiveness of QI for community health systems intervention44–46

Incremental cost of the interventionPer subcountyAt national scale*
 Detailed costing breakdown presented in Kumar et al 30 $34 133$2 564 859
Estimated annual number of: Per subcounty At national scale
 DALYs averted12613 930
Clinical outcomes
 Infant deaths averted0.993
 Maternal deaths averted2.4272
Policy targets
 Skilled births1441160 636
 Early ANC initiations19521 781
ICERs: incremental cost (2017 US dollars) per:
 DALY averted$249
Clinical outcomes
 Infant deaths averted$37 536
 Maternal deaths averted$5654
Policy targets
 Skilled births$10
 Early ANC initiations$155
  • *In the Kumar et al paper, the authors provide the per capita cost of the intervention. To estimate the cost at a national scale here, we have multiplied that by the population of Kenya as determined by the 2019 census.

  • ANC, antenatal care; DALYs, disability-adjusted life years; ICERs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios; QI, quality improvement.