Table 2

Multivariable spatial regression model for maternal mortality ratio (MMR)

VariableModel 1 β
(p value)
Model 2 β
(p value)
Model 3 β
(p value)
Model 4 β
(p value)
Model 5 β
(p value)
Final model β (p value)
Socioeconomic/culture
 Urban residence−0.84 (0.68)
 Income inequality−2.57 (0.21)
 Poverty rate1.94 (0.28)
 Gender inequality index (log transformed)183.30 (0.05)80.07 (0.01)
 Crude birth rate12 (0.01)
Lifestyle
 Total alcohol consumption−7.16 (0.84)
 Tobacco consumption17.40 (0.44)
 Healthcare resources
 Current health expenditure46.093 (0.02)
 Density of skilled health personnel−9.22 (0.001)−19.67 (0.03)
Maternal health conditions
 Anaemia in pregnancy9.21 (0.07)5.47 (0.43)
 Obesity among female adults−27.46 (0.01)5.18 (0.48)
 Hypertension among female adults21.61 (0.37)
 Syphilis seropositivity among pregnant women−93.199 (0.056)−24.12 (0.44)
 Prevalence of underweight among female adults−43.65 (0.23)
Health service coverage
 Deliveries by caesarean section−28.95 (0.06)
 ANC coverage—at least four visits9.59 (0.03)5.49 (0.02)
 Skilled birth attendants during delivery−0.94 (0.84)
Adjusted R20.58−0.070.430.3989520.555603
Model estimationOLSOLSOLSSpatial errorOLSOLS