Table 1

Descriptive analysis of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and independent variables arranged by domain of social health determinants

Dependent variable
 Maternal mortality ratio (MMR)415.04375301.5277.81115037
Independent variable, socio-economic/cultural factors
 GNI per capital2432.96140024852955.5815 600130
 Gender Inequality Index0.540.540.13250.110.710.17
 Income inequality (Gini coefficient)43.2343.058.957.756327.6
 Population of females with at least some secondary education30.2127.3526.97521.3488.81.7
 Population of females with at least some secondary education30.2127.3526.97521.3488.81.7
 Poverty rate (%)39.1740.830.923.0187.72
 Population living in urban areas (%)45.2243.323.717.668813.6
 Crude birth rate (per 1000 population)34.1335.58.88.3549.711.5
Lifestyle factors
 Prevalence of current tobacco smoking among female (%)2.762.352.92.449.80.1
 Total alcohol per capita consumption1.891.32.251.819.50
Healthcare resources
 Current health expenditure (%) of GDP5.605.23.12.1513.42.8
 Density of skilled health personnel (per 10 000 population)16.378.4114.3818.4089.971.08
Maternal infections and conditions
 Syphilis seropositivity among pregnant women (%)2.331.92.751.948.110
 Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women (%)43.9342.920.311.4861.822.6
 Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among female adults (%)6.305.152.7753.2718.22.6
 Prevalence of hypertension among female adults (%)21.99223.62.3627.717.5
 Prevalence of underweight (BMI <18 kg/m2) among female adults (≥18 years) (%)8.588.853.0753.3116.91.1
 Prevalence of obesity among female adults (%)16.6713.27.258.9141.16.9
Maternal and reproductive health service coverage
 Adolescent birth rate (per 1000 women)99.659463.649.202294
 ANC coverage—at least four visits (%)57.5357.124.32517.7289.36.3
 Skilled birth attendants during delivery (%)72.11782622.811009
 Deliveries by caesarean section (%)8.705.3610.0951.81.4
 Percentage of women of reproductive age who have their family planning needs satisfied (%)49.3045.933.6520.7884.85.2
  • BMI, body mass index; GDP, gross domestic product; GNI, gross national income.