Table 1

Patient feedback systems in public health facilities in Bangladesh (data from informal stakeholder engagements)

SystemFrequencyFeedback flowKey strengthsKey limitations
Online grievance redress systemUnknownPost→database→cabinet→implementer assigned→resolution→report back complaint
  • Anonymous, if registered get SMS updates.

  • Instructions, contacts explained.

  • Focal person from each ministry.

  • Online breakdown of cases by ministries.

  • A system not seemingly functional.

  • Public awareness is limited.

  • No monitoring with local level.

  • Accountability chains unclear.

SMS texting systemAbout 95 monthly for countrySMS→MOHFW verifies→call UHCs→priority assigned, solution→steps logged
  • Texts anonymous.

  • Instructions on boards at facility entrance.

  • Verification of cases, local resolution.

  • Online data available by type, time, facility.

  • No promotion, other than boards at UHCs.

  • Inaccessible to illiterate, with no mobiles.

  • No guidelines or policies.

  • Processing, follow-up by one person only.

Call centre—16 263Over 15 dailyCall→operator registers feedback, name, address→MIS→investigation, resolution→report back
  • Patients can feedback anonymously.

  • Toll-free number promoted by flyers and posters at health centres.

  • Online breakdown by types and time.

  • Promotion at the sub-district not evident.

  • No systematic documentation.

  • Feedback processing and follow-up unclear to the public.

VerbalUnrecorded reportedly frequentContact staff→feedback→resolution
  • Verbal feedback to UHC head, emergency department, staff.

  • Immediate response.

  • No guidelines about lodging.

  • No records kept.

Written lettersUnrecorded reportedly very rareLetter to management committee→investigation→resolution→report back
  • UHFPO assigns focal person, monitors.

  • Committee decisions published online.

  • Unused, broken, boxes, no instructions.

  • No written record kept.

  • No assigned person for the feedback.

Complaint boxRarely usedWritten feedback→report the head of UHC→resolution, reporting
  • Anonymity possible.

  • Local resolution at UHC.

  • Convertible to digital format by scanning.

  • No assigned person available.

  • Boxes often broken or closed.

  • MoHFW, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; UHC, Upazila Health Complex; UHFPO, Upazila Health and Family Planning Officer.