Table 3

Characteristics of 1220 dietary surveys in the GDD 2017, by world region*

WorldAsiaFormer Soviet UnionHigh-income countriesLatin America/
Caribbean
Middle East/North AfricaSouth AsiaSub-Saharan Africa
Surveys included, n12201801583861359556210
No of countries with surveys (% of world population in 2015)188 (99.0)30 (30.6)28 (5.5)25 (10.9)34 (8.3)20 (6.9)7 (23.3)44 (13.3)
Ages included†
 Children (0–19 years)902 (73.9)108 (60.0)142 (89.9)254 (65.8)109 (80.7)74 (77.9)45 (80.4)170 (81.0)
 Adults (20+ years)787 (64.5)143 (79.4)94 (59.5)254 (65.8)64 (47.4)56 (58.9)38 (67.9)138 (65.7)
Representativeness
 National880 (72.1)108 (60.0)149 (94.3)263 (68.1)100 (74.1)70 (73.7)28 (46.4)162 (77.1)
 Subnational207 (17.0)39 (21.7)7 (4.4)94 (24.4)17 (12.6)13 (13.7)10 (17.9)27 (12.9)
 Community133 (10.9)33 (18.3)2 (1.3)29 (7.5)18 (13.3)12 (12.6)18 (32.1)21 (10.0)
Median (5th, 95th percentile) number of GDD dietary food groups per survey‡6.0 (1.0, 30.0)5.5 (1.0, 31.4)6.0 (2.0, 17.0)6.0 (1.0, 31.9)5.0 (2.0, 36.9)3.0 (1.0, 47.0)10.0 (2.0, 26.7)7.0 (2.0, 14.0)
Dietary assessment method
  Single or multiple diet recalls/records
  No surveys286 (23.4)69 (38.3)25 (15.8)125 (32.4)18 (13.3)18 (18.9)16 (28.6)15 (7.1)
  No countries, % regional population represented68 (78.0)12 (95.9)8 (19.1)21 (98.7)7 (59.9)7 (42.5)4 (89.9)15 (39.9)
 Food Frequency Questionnaire
  No surveys, %503 (41.2)71 (39.4)86 (54.4)132 (34.2)65 (48.1)61 (64.2)24 (42.9)64 (30.5)
  No countries, % regional population represented164 (94.3)28 (98.9)23 (87.0)22 (96.2)32 (97.6)19 (99.7)7 (100.0)33 (70.2)
 DHS questionnaire
  No surveys, %193 (15.8)14 (7.8)10 (6.3)0 (0.0)40 (29.6)14 (14.7)14 (25.0)101 (48.1)
  No countries, % regional population represented70 (53.9)5 (21.0)8 (30.3)0 (0.0)11 (79.7)4 (41.4)5 (98.7)37 (95.8)
 Biomarker
  No surveys, %160 (13.1)26 (14.4)7 (4.4)82 (21.2)11 (8.1)2 (2.1)2 (3.6)30 (14.3)
  No countries, % regional population represented60 (70.7)7 (85.8)6 (50.2)18 (95.4)9 (39.2)2 (31.2)1 (76.5)17 (54.3)
 Household budget survey
  No surveys, %78 (6.4)0 (0.0)30 (19.0)47 (12.2)1 (0.7)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
  No countries, % regional population represented27 (15.1)0 (0.0)9 (52.9)17 (84.5)1 (33.8)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Data type
 Individual-level microdata715 (58.6)74 (41.1)99 (62.6)146 (37.8)114 (84.4)73 (76.8)45 (80.4)164 (78.1)
 Aggregated stratum-level distributions505 (41.4)106 (58.9)59 (37.3)240 (62.2)21 (15.6)22 (23.2)11 (19.6)46 (21.9)
Data source
 Contributed by data owner356 (29.4)90 (50.0)38 (24.1)85 (22.0)42 (31.1)41 (43.2)27 (48.2)33 (15.7)
 Retrieved from public source864 (70.6)90 (50.0)120 (75.9)301 (78.0)93 (68.9)54 (56.8)29 (51.8)177 (84.3)
  • Data are survey counts (%).

  • *Countries in each world region are: Asia: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, Fiji, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Kiribati, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Macau, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Myanmar, North Korea, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Vanuatu, Viet Nam. Former Soviet Union: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Mongolia, Montenegro, Poland, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. High-income countries: Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, USA. Latin America/Caribbean: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela. Middle East/North Africa: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Occupied Palestinian Territory, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen. South Asia: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Réunion, Sri Lanka. Sub-Saharan Africa: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

  • †Because data on children were not collected in GDD 2010 (41.7% of total surveys), these percentages may underestimate available data in these surveys. Values are shown for surveys including data on that age group and may sum to greater than 100% because a survey can include both children and adults.

  • ‡Based on the food groups collected in the GDD 2010 (up to 21, 41.7% of surveys)) and GDD 2017 (up to 54, 58.3% of surveys)), not including biomarker surveys.

  • DHS, Demographic Health Survey; GDD, Global Dietary Database.