Table 1

Estimated difference-in-difference coefficients for continuous, binary and count outcomes

Growth models
(Average change over time in Sugira Muryango compared with usual care)
Baseline to postintervention difference†Baseline to 12-month follow-up difference†
OutcomeDifference-in-difference* (95% CI)P valueMarginal effect (95% CI)Marginal effect (95% CI)
Child development outcomes
 ASQ-3 Gross motor z-score0.294 (0.118 to 0.470)0.0010.298 (0.150 to 0.446)0.597 (0.300 to 0.893)
 ASQ-3 Fine Motor z- score0.004 (−0.119 to 0.127)0.950.061 (−0.043 to 0.165)0.122 (−0.086 to 0.330)
 ASQ-3 Communication z- score0.139 (0.009 to 0.268)0.0340.129 (0.020 to 0.238)0.259 (0.041 to 0.476)
 ASQ-3 Prob. Solving z- score0.159 (0.035 to 0.282)0.0120.189 (0.085 to 0.293)0.379 (0.171 to 0.587)
 ASQ-3 Social Emotional z- score0.148 (0.023 to 0.273)0.0200.122 (0.017 to 0.228)0.245 (0.0342 to 0.455)
 MDAT Gross motor z- score−0.003 (−0.101 to 0.095)0.9510.028 (−0.055 to 0.111)0.055 (−0.111 to 0.221)
 MDAT fine motor z- score0.070 (−0.058 to 0.198)0.2830.097 (−0.012 to 0.205)0.193 (−0.023 to 0.410)
 MDAT language z- score−0.022 (−0.126 to 0.080)0.668−0.016 (−0.103 to 0.072)−0.032 (−0.206 to 0.143)
 MDAT socioemotional z- score0.073 (−0.016 to 0.164)0.1080.060 (−0.016 to 0.136)0.121 (−0.031 to 0.272)
Father engagement
 Father engagement in childcare‡1.591 (1.069, 2.368)0.0221.565 (1.091, 2.244)2.449 (1.191, 5.037)
Child growth outcomes
 Height-for-age−0.019 (-0.067 to 0.029)0.44−0.033 (−0.074 to 0.007)−0.067 (−0.148 to 0.0144)
 Weight-for-age−0.031 (−0.071 to 0.009)0.139−0.038 (−0.072 to –0.003)−0.075 (−0.143 to –0.007)
 Weight-for-height−0.016 (−0.069 to 0.037)0.551−0.015 (−0.059 to 0.029)−0.030 (−0.119 to 0.0592)
 Middle upper arm circumference−0.057 (−0.113 to –0.001)0.046−0.036 (−0.083 to 0.011)−0.072 (−0.167 to 0.0227)
Violence and safety
 Harsh discipline §0.741 (0.657 to 0.835)<0.0010.774 (0.688 to 0.870)0.632 (0.510 to 0.783)
 Victimisation (female
caregivers)§, ¶
0.616 (0.458 to 0.828)0.0010.616 (0.425 to 0.893)0.442 (0.238 to 0.820)
 Perpetration (male caregivers)§, **0.604 (0.325 to 0.110)0.1100.897 (0.708 to 1.134)0.842 (0.559 to 1.266)
  • *Assesses the significance of the ‘difference-in-difference’ or ‘time-by-treatment’ interaction coefficient.

  • †Difference in marginal means estimates between Sugira Muryango and usual care at each time point.

  • ‡Among households with a father (N=524), Displayed as OR.

  • §From MICS: UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, displayed as incidence rate ratio.

  • ¶Among female caregivers reporting a current intimate partner at baseline (n=523), displayed as incidence rate ratio.

  • **Among male caregivers reporting a current intimate partner at baseline (n=450), displayed as incidence rate ratio.

  • ASQ-3, Ages and Stages Questionnaire; MDAT, Malawi Development Assessment Tool.