Table 1

Key outcome measures

VariableRespondentIndicatorCoding
Experience of intimate partner violence
Experienced physical violence from partner in past 12 months*WomenWomen were asked six items adapted from the WHO multi-country study,6 regarding whether their partner had ever done the following in the past 12 months: (1) slapped you or threw something at you that could hurt you; (2) pushed or shoved you; (3) hit you with a fist or with something that could hurt you; (4) kicked you, dragged you or beat you up; (5) choked or burned you on purpose; (6) threatened to use or actually used a gun, knife or other weapon against you. Responses ranged from 0=no, 1=yes.Binary; coded as 1 if responded yes to any of the six items, and 0 if no to all.
Experienced sexual violence from partner in the past 12 months†WomenWomen were asked three items regarding whether their partner had ever done the following in the past 12 months: (1) physically force you to have sexual intercourse with him even when you did not want to; (2) force you to perform sexual acts that you did not want to; (3) did you ever have sexual intercourse because you were intimidated by him or afraid he would hurt you? Responses ranged from 0=no, 1=yes.Binary; coded as 1 if responded yes to any of the three items, and 0 if no to all.
Experienced physical and/or sexual violence from partner in the past 12 monthsWomenIncludes the six physical violence items and three sexual violence items above.Binary; coded as 1 if responded yes to any of the nine items, and 0 if no to all.
Experienced emotional violence from partner in the past 12 monthsWomenWomen were asked five items adapted from the WHO multi-country study,6 regarding whether their partner had ever done the following in the past 12 months: (1) insulted you or made you feel bad about yourself: (2) belittled or humiliated you in front of other people; (3) done things to scare or intimidate you on purpose (eg, by the way he looked at you, by yelling, by smashing things)?; (4) threatened to hurt you or someone you care about? Responses ranged from 0=no, 1=yes.Binary; coded as 1 if responded yes to any of the four items, and 0 if no to all.
Perpetration of intimate partner violence
Perpetrated physical violence against partner in past 12 months†MenMen were asked six items adapted from the WHO multi-country study,6 regarding whether they had ever done the following against their partner in the past 12 months: (1) slapped her or threw something at her that could hurt her; (2) pushed or shoved her; (3) hit her with a fist or with something that could hurt her; (4) kicked her, dragged her or beat her up; (5) choked or burned her on purpose; (6) threatened to use or actually used a gun, knife or other weapon against her. Responses ranged from 0=no, 1=yes.Binary; coded as 1 if responded yes to any of the six items, and 0 if no to all.
Perpetrated sexual violence against partner in the past 12 months†MenMen were asked three items regarding whether they had ever done the following to their partner in the past 12 months: (1) physically force her to have sexual intercourse with him even when she did not want to; (2) force her to perform sexual acts that she did not want to; (3) did she ever have sexual intercourse because she was intimidated by him or afraid he would hurt her? Responses ranged from 0=no, 1=yes.Binary; coded as 1 if responded yes to any of the three items, and 0 if no to all.
Perpetrated physical and/or sexual violence against partner in the past 12 monthsMenIncludes the six physical violence items and three sexual violence items above.Binary; coded as 1 if responded yes to any of the nine items, and 0 if no to all.
Perpetratedemotional violenceagainst partner in thepast 12 monthsMenMen were asked five items adapted from the WHO multicountry study,6 regarding whether they had ever done thefollowing against their partner in the past 12 months: 1)Insulted her or made her feel bad about yourself: 2) Belittledor humiliated her in front of other people; 3) Done things toscare or intimidate her on purpose (e.g. by the way youlooked at her, by yelling, by smashing things)?; 4) Threatenedto hurt her or someone she cares about? Responses rangedfrom0 = no, 1 = yes.Binary; coded as 1 if responded yes to any of the four items, and 0 if no to all.
HIV knowledge, attitudes and behaviours
Comprehensive knowledge on HIV†Women; menRespondents were asked the following questions: (1) can people reduce their chance of getting the AIDS virus by having just one uninfected sex partner who has no other sex partners?; (2) can people get the AIDS virus from mosquito bites?; (3) can people reduce their chance of getting the AIDS virus by using a condom every time they have sex?; (4) can people get the AIDS virus because of witchcraft, God’s curse, or other supernatural means?; (5) do you think that a healthy-looking person can have HIV? Responses ranged from 1=yes, 2=no, 3=do not know.Binary coded as 1 if answered all questions correctly, 0 if one or more questions answered incorrectly.
Used condom at last intercourse†Women; menRespondents were asked: did you use a condom last time you had sex? Responses ranged for 0=no, 1=yes.Binary; coded as 1 if used condom at last sex, and 0 if did not use condom at last sex.
Confidence in ability to use a condomWomen; menRespondents were asked the following question: how confident are you that you know how to correctly use a condom? Responses ranged from 1=not at all confident, 2=somewhat confident, 3=confident, 4=very confident.Binary; coded as 1 if responded confident or very confident, 0 if not at all confident or somewhat confident.
Ever been tested for HIVWomen; menRespondents were asked the following question: I do not want to know the results, but have you ever had a blood test for HIV?. Responses ranged from 0=no, 1=yes.Binary; coded as 1 if have had an HIV test, and 0 if never had an HIV test.
Discussed HIV risk with partner in the past 12 monthsWomen; menRespondents were asked if they have discussed HIV risk behaviour with their partner in the last 12 months. Responses ranged from 0=no, 1=yes.Binary; coded as 1 if have discussed HIV risk, and 0 if have not discussed HIV risk.
Discussed sex with partner in the past 12 monthsWomen; menRespondents were asked if they have discussed sex with their partner in the last 12 months. Responses ranged from 0=no, 1=yes.Binary; coded as 1 if have discussed sex, and 0 if have not discussed sex.
Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to IPV
Knowledge of laws related to IPVWomen; menRespondents were asked two questions: (1) according to the law, is a husband who forces his wife to have sex against her will committing a criminal act (ie, the husband can be fined or put in jail)?; (2) are there any laws in your country about violence against women? Responses ranged from 0=no, 1=yes, 2=do not know.Binary, coded as 1 if responded correctly to both questions (yes to both questions).
Support for gender equitable normsWomen; menRespondents were asked if they agreed with 13 statements from the Gender Equitable Men’s Scale: (1) a man should have the final word on decisions in his home; (2) a woman should obey her husband in all things; (3) it is alright for a man to beat his wife if she is unfaithful; (4) a man can hit his wife if she will not have sex with him; (5) a woman should not initiate sex; (6) a man should be outraged if his wife asks him to use a condom; (7) it is a woman’s responsibility to avoid getting pregnant; (8) a woman who has sex before she marries does not deserve respect; (9) women should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together; (10) there are times a woman deserves to be beaten; (11) a man using violence against his wife is a private matter that should not be discussed outside of the couple; (12) it disgusts me when I see a man acting like a woman. Responses ranged from 1=agree, 2=partially agree, 3=do not agree.A score was generated by summing the responses to all 12 questions. A binary variable generated, and coded as 1 if respondent scored 24 or higher.
Do not believe that IPV is justifiedWomen; menRespondents were asked whether they believe a man has a good reason to beat his wife in the following situations: (1) she answers back to him; (2) she neglects taking care of the children; (3) she burns the food; (4) she goes out without telling him; (5) she refuses to have sex with him. Responses ranged from 1=yes to 2=no.Binary; coded as 1 if responded no to all statements and coded as 0 if responded yes to any of the statements.
Intra-household decision-making and gendered division of childcare and household tasks
Male involvement in household and child-care tasksWomen; menRespondents were asked how they divided four household tasks that are typically performed by women: (1) washing clothes; (2) cleaning the house; (3) preparing the food; (4) daily care of the children. Responses ranged from 1=woman always does the task, to 3=shared equally or done together, to 5=man always does the task.Binary; coded as 1 if man contributed to two or more tasks and 0 if contributed to less than two tasks.
Men’s dominance in decision-making about food and clothingWomen; menRespondents were asked who in their household has the final say in how you spend money on food and clothing. Responses ranged from 1=woman, 2=man, 3=both jointly, 4=someone else.Binary; coded as 1 if man has final say, and as 0 if decision made by woman or made jointly.
Men’s dominance in decision-making about purchase of large itemsWomen; menRespondents were asked who in their household has the final say in how you spend money on large investments such as a car, or a house or a household appliance. Responses ranged from 1=woman, 2=man, 3=both jointly, 4=someone else.Binary; coded as 1 if man has final say, and as 0 if decision made by woman or made jointly.
Men’s dominance in decision-making about spending time with family and friendsWomen; menRespondents were asked who in their household has the final say regarding spending time with family or relatives. Responses ranged from 1=woman, 2=man, 3=both jointly, 4=someone else.Binary; coded as 1 if man has final say, and as 0 if decision made by woman or made jointly.
  • *Primary outcome measures.

  • †Secondary outcome measures.

  • IPV, intimate partner violence.