Table 2

Components of clinical prediction models evaluated in the included studies

Clinical prediction modelVariables used in the clinical prediction model in the included studiesIncluded study evaluating the modelOriginal study developing the model
AQUAMATBase deficit, impaired consciousness, convulsions, elevated blood urea, underlying chronic illnessGeorge31von Seidlein60
ELSHOUT modelSore throat, palpable lymph nodes, duration of fever before consultation, C-reactive proteinElshout29Elshout29
FEAST-PETAxillary temperature, heart rate, capillary refill time, conscious level, respiratory distress, lung crepitations, severe pallor, weak pulseGeorge31George31
FEAST-PETaLFEAST-PET with the addition of lactate, pH, blood urea nitrogenGeorge31George31
KWIZERA model 1Age, respiratory rate, heart rate, temperature, capillary refill time, altered mental stateKwizera41Kwizera41
KWIZERA model 2Age, respiratory rate, heart rate, capillary refill time, altered mental stateKwizera41Kwizera41
KWIZERA model 3Age, respiratory rate, temperature, capillary refill time, altered mental stateKwizera41Kwizera41
KWIZERA model 4Age, respiratory rate, capillary refill time, altered mental stateKwizera41Kwizera41
KWIZERA model 5Age, respiratory rate, altered mental stateKwizera41Kwizera41
LODSDeep breathing, coma, and prostrationGeorge31; Conroy27Helbok50
LOWLAAVAR model 1Conscious level, HIV, weight-for-age z-scoreLowlaavar42Lowlaavar42
LOWLAAVAR model 2Conscious level, HIV, mid-upper arm circumferenceLowlaavar42Lowlaavar42
LOWLAAVAR model 3Conscious level, mid-upper arm circumferenceLowlaavar42Lowlaavar42
PEDIA-iAnaemia, jaundice, indrawing, deep breathing, conscious level, prostration, convulsions/seizures, temperatureGeorge31Berkley51
PEDIA-eJaundice, indrawing, conscious level, prostration, convulsions/seizures, wasting, kwashiorkor*George;31 Conroy27Berkley51
PEDIA-lHistory >7 days, conscious level, prostration, convulsions/seizures, temperature, wasting, kwashiorkorGeorge31Berkley51
PEWS†Heart rate, capillary refill time, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, systolic blood pressureGeorge31Parshuram61
PRISM III‡Heart rate, temperature, conscious level, systolic blood pressure, glucose, potassium, PCO2, pH, acidosis, pupillary reflexesGeorge31Pollack62
qPELOD-2Systolic or mean arterial pressure, heart rate, altered mentationvan Nassau38Leclerc53
qSOFARespiratory rate, altered mentation, systolic blood pressurevan Nassau38Seymour54
qSOFA-LqSOFA with the addition of lactatevan Nassau38van Nassau38
SCOTT modelSystolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, temperature, age, respiratory rate, heart rate, arrival via emergency medical services, oncological comorbidity, indwelling central line on arrival, hospitalised in the last yearScott40Scott40
SICKLevel of consciousness, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, SpO2, capillary refill time, ageConroy27Kumar52
SIRSHeart rate, respiratory rate, leucocyte count, temperaturevan Nassau38Goldstein63
YOSQuality of cry, reaction to parent stimulation, state variation, colour, hydration, response to social overturesWalia39McCarthy64
  • *Kwashiorkor was not included in the PEDIA-e score in the Conroy et al study.

  • †Receipt of oxygen therapy and respiratory effort included in the original PEWS but not measured in the George et al study.

  • ‡Pupillary reflexes, pH, total CO2, arterial PaO2, creatinine, urea, white blood cells, prothrombin time and platelets included in the original PRISM III score but not measured in the George et al study.

  • AQUAMAT, African Quinine Artesunate Malaria Trial; FEAST-PET, FEAST-Paediatric Emergency Triage; FEAST-PETaL, FEAST-Paediatric Emergency Triage and Laboratory; LODS, Lambaréné Organ Dysfunction Score; PEDIA-e, Paediatric Early Death Index for Africa (early death score); PEDIA-i, Paediatric Early Death Index for Africa (immediate death score); PEDIA-l, Paediatric Early Death Index for Africa (late death score); PEWS, Paediatric Early Warning Score; PRISM-III, Paediatric Risk of Mortality; qPELOD-2, quick Paediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction; qSOFA, quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; qSOFA-L, quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment-Lacate; SICK, Signs of Inflammation in Children that Kill; SIRS, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome; YOS, Yale Observation Score.