Table 3

Risk of bias assessment

StudyData source123456789
Abera L t al Dejene T, Laelago T.40 Community-based cross-sectional studyOther results cited
Abraham D, Elifaged H, Berhanu E.41 Community-based cross-sectional study
Aguayo VM, Badgaiyan N, Paintal K.79 BMIS—customised version of DHSOther results cited
Aguayo VM, Badgaiyan N, Dzed L.80 BMIS—customised version of DHS
Akombi BJ, et al.99 DHS 2013
Altare C. et al.42 Cross-sectional studyOther results cited
Baig-Ansari, N. et al.81 Cross-sectional survey
Biswas S, Bose K.82 Cross-sectional study
Bukusuba J, Kaaya AN, Atukwase A.44 Case–control study
Chirande, L. et al 45 DHS 2010
Choudhury, N. et al.91 Surveillance dataOther results cited
Chowdhury, M.R. et al.92 DHS 2011Other results cited
Choy, C. et al.76 Community-based cross-sectional study
Cruz, L. et al.48 Case–control study
Tosheno D, Mehretie Adinew Y, Thangavel T, et al 49 Community-based cross-sectional study
Díez-Navarro A, et al. 73 NGO intervention data
El-Taguri A, et al.75 Cross-sectional study
Eskezyiaw A, Tefera C.50 Community-based cross-sectional study
Geresomo N, et al.54 Cross-sectional study
Gupta A.83 Cross-sectional studyNo
Habtom K, et al.57 Community-based cross-sectional study
Islam MM, et al.94 Longitudinal
Khan, A.T. et al.84 Cross-sectional study
Kismul H, et al.36 DHS 2013–2014
Kumar D, et al.85 Community-based cross-sectional study
Masibo PK, Makoka D.60 DHS data—multiple years
Matanda DJ, Mittelmark MB, Kigaru DMD.61 DHS data—multiple years
Medhin G, et al.56 Surveillance data
Mgongo M, et al.62 Cross-sectional studyOther results cited
Miah RW, Apanga PA, Abdul-Haq Z. 103 Multiple indicator cluster survey dataOther results cited
Ndemwa M, et al.64 Cross-sectional studyOther results cited
Ndiku M, et al.65 Cross-sectional study
Ntenda PAM, Chuang YC.66 DHS multiple years
Olusanya BO, Wirz SL, Renner JK.104 Cross-sectional study
Phengxay M, et al.96 Cross-sectional study
Poda GG, Hsu C, Chao JCJ.105 DHS 2010Other results cited
Ramli, A. et al.97 Cross-sectional study
Sakisaka K, et al. 37 Cross-sectional study
Sand A, et al. 86 Cross-sectional study
Shaikh S, et al.87 Cross-sectional study
Shashank KJ, Angadi MM.88 Cross-sectional study
Tadesse AW, et al.69 Cross-sectional study
Wamani H, et al.21 DHS multiple years and countries
Yisak H, Gobena T, Mesfin F.70 Community-based cross-sectional study
  • 1. Were aims and objectives clearly stated?, 2. Was the target/reference population clearly described (is it clear who research is about)?, 3. Was a sample size justification, power description, or variance and effect estimates provided?, 4. Were the risk factor and outcome variables measured appropriate to the aims of the study?, 5. Were methods of anthropometric measurement and growth reference charts used well described?, 6. Is it clear what was used to determine statistical significance and/or precision estimates (eg, p values, CIs)?, 7. Results—were basic data adequately described?, 8. Were the male/female differences or non-differences discussed?, 9. Were limitations of study discussed?

  • ⬤=Yes, ◯=No, ◐=Partially.

  • BMIS, Bhutan's Multiple Indicator Survey; DHS, Demographic and Health Surveys; NGO, non-governmental organisation.