Table 1

Study characteristics

StudyStudy designCountryRegionSample sizeBoy/girl difference wastingBoy/girl difference stuntingBoy/girl difference underweightReasons for differences discussed
Kismul H, et al.36 Cross-sectionalDRCCentral Africa8994NAMore boysNANo
Sakisaka K, et al.37 Cross-sectionalNicaraguaCentral Africa755NAMore girlsMore girlsYes
Vonaesch P, et al.38 Cross-sectionalCARCentral Africa414NAMore boysNAOther results cited
Abdulahi A. et al. 39 Systematic review and meta-analysisEthiopiaEast Africa39 585Not reportedMore boysNot reportedNo
Abera L, Dejene T, Laelago T. 40 Cross-sectionalEthiopiaEast Africa398Not reportedNAMore boysOther results cited
Abraham D, Elifaged H, Berhanu E.41 Cross-sectionalEthiopiaEast Africa50More boysMore boysMore boysYes
Altare C. et al. 42 Cross-sectionalTanzaniaEast Africa3264NAMore boysNAOther results cited
Asfaw, M. et al. 43 Cross-sectionalEthiopiaEast Africa796More boysMore boysMore boysYes
Bukusuba J, Kaaya AN, Atukwase A. 44 Case–controlUgandaEast Africa168NAMore boysNAYes
Chirande, L. et al. 45 Cross-sectionalTanzaniaEast Africa7324NAMore boysNAYes
Chirwa EW, Ngalawa HPE.46 Cross-sectionalMalawiEast Africa13 858More boysMore boysMore boysYes
Condo, J. et al. 47 LongitudinalRwandaEast Africa480More boysMore boysMore boysYes
Cruz, L. et al. 48 Case–controlMozambiqueEast Africa282NAMore boysNAYes
Tosheno D, Mehretie Adinew Y, Thangavel T, et al. 49 Cross-sectionalEthiopiaEast Africa642NANAMore boysYes
Eskezyiaw A, Tefera C. 50 Cross-sectionalEthiopiaEast Africa562NAMore boysNANo
Espo M, et al. 51 CohortMalawiEast Africa613NAMore boysNANo
Ettyang GA, Sawe CJ.52 Cross-sectionalKenya and CambodiaEast Africa10 163NAMore boysNAYes
Fentahun N, Belachew T, Lachat C. 53 LongitudinalEthiopiaEast Africa1927More girlsMore girlsMore girlsYes
Geresomo N, et al. 54 Cross-sectionalMalawiEast Africa306NAMore boysNAYes
Gewa CA, Yandell N. 55 Cross-sectionalKenyaEast Africa3793More boysMore boysMore boysYes
Medhin G, et al 56 LongitudinalEthiopiaEast Africa1799NAMore boysMore boysYes
Habtom K, et al. 57 Cross-sectionalEthiopiaEast Africa593More boysNAMore boysNo
Haile D, et al. 58 Cross-sectionalEthiopiaEast Africa9893NAMore boysNAYes
Kinyoki DK, et al. 59 Cross-sectionalSomaliaEast Africa73 778More boysMore boysMore boysNo
Masibo PK, Makoka D. 60 Cross-sectionalKenyaEast Africa19 021NAMore boysMore boysNo
Matanda DJ, Mittelmark MB, Kigaru DMD.61 Cross-sectionalKenyaEast Africa11 938More boysMore boysNAYes
Mgongo M, et al. 62 Cross-sectionalTanzaniaEast Africa1870More boysMore boysMore boysOther results cited
Moges B, et al. 63 Cross-sectionalEthiopiaEast Africa734NAMore boysNANo
Ndemwa M, et al. 64 Cross-sectionalKenyaEast Africa380NAMore boysMore boysYes
Ndiku M, et al. 65 Cross-sectionalKenyaEast Africa629More girlsMore girlsMore girlsYes
Ntenda PAM, Chuang YC. 66 Cross-sectionalMalawiEast Africa6384More boysMore boysMore boysYes
Olwedo MA, et al. 67 Cross-sectionalUgandaEast Africa672More boysMore boysNAYes
Rakotomanana H, et al. 68 Cross-sectionalMadagascarEast Africa4774NAMore boysNAYes
Tadesse AW, et al. 69 Cross-sectionalEthiopiaEast Africa622NAMore boysNAYes
Yisak H, Gobena T, Mesfin F. 70 Cross-sectionalEthiopiaEast Africa791More boysMore boysMore boysNo
Yourkavitch J. 71 Cross-sectionalRwandaEast Africa1572More boysMore boysMore boysYes
Jiang Y, et al.72 Cross-sectionalChinaEast Asia1115NAMore boysNAOther results cited
Díez-Navarro A, et al. 73 Cross-sectionalMultiple (Africa, Latin America, Asia)Multiple367 258More boysMore boysMore boysYes
Khara T, et al. 28 Cross-sectionalMultiple (global)Multiple570 930More boysMore boysNAYes
Keino S, et al.74 Systematic reviewMultiple (sub-Saharan Africa)Multiple195 559NAMore boysNANo
Myatt M, et al.29 Meta-analysisMultiple (global)Multiple1 796 991More boys reported with concurrent wasting and stuntingNAYes
Wamani H, et al.21 Cross-sectionalMultiple (sub-Saharan Africa)Multiple64 000NAMore boysNAYes
El-Taguri A, et al. 75 Cross-sectionalLibyaNorth Africa4498NAMore boysNANo
Choy, C. et al. 76 Cross-sectionalSamoaOceania305NAMore boysNAYes
Castro B.A. et al. 77 Cross-sectionalColumbiaSouth America2967 under 5’sNAMore girlsNAYes
Correia, L. et al. 78 Cross-sectionalBrazilSouth America6046More girlsMore girlsNANo
Aguayo VM, Badgaiyan N, Paintal K. 79 Cross-sectionalBhutanSouth Asia2085NAMore boysNAOther results cited
Aguayo VM, Badgaiyan N, Dzed L.80 Cross-sectionalBhutanSouth Asia2028More boysNANANo
Baig-Ansari, N. et al. 81 Cross-sectionalPakistanSouth Asia399NAMore girlsNAYes
Biswas S, Bose K.82 Cross-sectionalIndiaSouth Asia161More boysMore girlsMore boysYes
Gupta A. 83 Cross-sectionalIndiaSouth Asia440NAMore girlsNAYes
Khan, A.T. et al. 84 Cross-sectionalPakistanSouth Asia3964More boysMore boysMore boysNo
Kumar D, et al. 85 Cross-sectionalIndiaSouth Asia424NANAMore girlsYes
Sand A, et al. 86 Cross-sectionalPakistanSouth Asia105More boysNANANo
Shaikh S, et al.87 Cross-sectionalIndiaSouth Asia245More boysMore girlsMore girlsYes
Shashank KJ, Angadi MM. 88 Cross-sectionalIndiaSouth Asia161More boysMore girlsMore boysYes
Adair LS, Guilkey DK. 89 LongitudinalPhilippinesSouth East Asia3080NAMore boysNAYes
Ahmed A.M. et al 90 Cross-sectionalBangladeshSouth East Asia8858More boysMore boysMore boysOther results cited
Choudhury, N. et al. 91 SurveillanceBangladeshSouth East Asia10 291More boysMore boysMore boysOther results cited
Chowdhury, M.R. et al.92 Cross-sectionalBangladeshSouth East Asia7568No difference foundMore girlsMore girlsOther results cited
Dancer D, Rammohan A, Smith MD.93 Cross-sectionalBangladeshSouth East Asia5172More girlsMore girlsNAYes
Islam MM, et al. 94 CohortBangladeshSouth East Asia265NAMore boysNAYes
Khambalia A, et al. 95 Literature reviewMalaysiaSouth East AsiaNANAMore boysNoNA
Phengxay M, et al. 96 Cross-sectionalLaosSouth East Asia798More girlsMore boysMore boysNo
Ramli, A. et al. 97 Cross-sectionalIndonesiaSouth East Asia2168NAMore boysNANo
Olita'a D, et al. 98 Case–controlPapua New GuineaSouth West Pacific50More girlsMore girlsMore girlsYes
Akombi BJ, et al. 99 Cross-sectionalNigeriaWest Africa24 529NAMore boysNAYes
Amugsi DA, Mittelmark MB, Lartey A.100 Cross-sectionalGhanaWest Africa7235More boysMore boysMore boysNo
Bork KA, Diallo A.32 CohortSenegalWest Africa7319More boysMore boysNAYes
Darteh EK, Acquah E, Kumi-Kyereme A. 101 Cross-sectionalGhanaWest Africa2379NAMore boysNANo
Garenne M, et al. 102 LongitudinalSenegalWest Africa12 638More boysMore boysNAYes
Miah RW, Apanga PA, Abdul-Haq Z. 103 Cross-sectionalGhanaWest Africa7550More boysMore boysMore boysYes
Olusanya BO, Wirz SL, Renner JK.104 Cross-sectionalNigeriaWest Africa5994More boysMore boysMore boysNo
Poda GG, Hsu C, Chao JCJ. 105 Cross-sectionalBurkina FasoWest Africa6337More boysMore boysMore boysOther results cited
  • CAR, Central African Republic; DRC, Democratic Republic of the Congo; NA, not available.