Table 2

Mapping group interventions to contexts and health outcomes: characteristics and assumptions

Intervention typeRelevant target populationAssumption 1:
Assumption 2:
Assumption 3:
Examples of outcomes achieved
ClassroomIndividual group membersIndividuals can change risk factors largely on their ownBottleneck behaviours and their enablers and barriers can reliably be identified by expertsFew problem-solving capacities are required; group members only need to follow instructionsImproved knowledge of and attitudes towards tapeworm infection among targeted school children31
Club (didactic)Group membersSupport from staff and group members suffice to change risk factorsAs aboveAs aboveImproved uptake of antenatal and postnatal care services among group members32
Club (problem-solving)Group membersAs aboveBottleneck behaviours are disputed or unknown to expertsGroup members are willing and able to collectively reflect, innovate and adapt to address health issues with facilitatorsGreater utilisation of latrines among club members33
CollectiveThe general populationCollective action by staff, group members and the wider community is needed to change risk factorsAs aboveGroup and community members are willing and able to reflect, innovate and adapt to address health issues with facilitatorsImproved population-level rates of newborn survival8