Table 1

Example interventions for each intervention type

Intervention typeStyleScopeIntervention design
ClassroomDidactic. Intervention primarily sought to transfer information about worm infection to its target audience.Individual. Classrooms were targeted mainly as a logistical convenience for reaching large numbers of children.Video screening for school children about tapeworm infection in Tanzania followed by distribution of information leaflets.31
Club (didactic)Didactic. Focus on delivering maternal and child health messages. Discussion was only used to check for women’s understanding of these health messages.Group. Social cohesion among group members facilitated the emergence of mutual social support, for example, in seeking maternal care from health providers.Health education for members of financial self-help groups regarding maternal and newborn care and care-seeking practices in India.32
Club (problem-solving)Problem-solving. Club members developed strategies to address local priorities, ending each session with a pledge to do homework before the next weekly session.Group. Club members visited each other to provide support and monitor progress on homework. However, they interacted little with outside non-club members in this process.Village Health Clubs stimulating behaviour change and demand for improved water, hygiene and sanitation in Zimbabwe.33
CollectiveProblem-solving. Group facilitators lead members through a cycle of prioritising, planning and implementing their own strategies to address health problems.Community. Group members involve the wider community in staffing bicycle ambulances, producing and distributing clean delivery kits or lobbying local government.71Women’s groups practising participatory learning and action to promote maternal and newborn health in Malawi, Nepal, India and Bangladesh.8