Table 1

Examples of generalisable principles reflected in policy and practice guidance

Example of guidanceInterventions consideredMain objective of guidanceKey principles of approach takenIllustrative content of recommendations
Public health guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence41‘Interventions in the built or natural environment that encourage and support physical activity among all population groups’42‘How to improve the physical environment to encourage and support physical activity’‘Even if there is a policy in place to address these issues, the way it is interpreted and put into practice may vary both between areas, and over time in the same area’‘Ensure (…) modes of transport that involve physical activity are given the highest priority (…) Use one or more of the following methods:
  • Reallocate road space (…) (for example, by widening footways and introducing cycle lanes)

  • Restrict motor vehicle access (for example, by closing or narrowing roads to reduce capacity)

  • Introduce road-user charging schemes (…)

  • Introduce traffic-calming schemes to restrict vehicle speeds (…)

Transport network management guidance in response to COVID-19 from the Department for Transport43‘Changes to (…) road layouts to give more space to cyclists and pedestrians’‘When the country gets back to work, we need them to carry on cycling, and to be joined by millions more (and) pedestrians will need more space’‘The guidance sets out high-level principles to help local authorities to manage their roads and what actions they should take’‘Local authorities where public transport use is low should be considering all possible measures (…) None of these measures are new (…) but a step-change in their roll-out is needed to ensure a green restart. They include:
  • Installing ‘pop-up’ cycle facilities (…) for example, mandatory cycle lanes, (…) light segregation features (or) temporary cycle lanes (…)

  • Encouraging walking and cycling to school, for example through the introduction of more ‘school streets’ (…)

  • Modal filters (also known as filtered permeability); closing roads to motor traffic, for example by using planters or large barriers (…)

  • Emphases added.