Table 4

Adjusted and unadjusted risk ratios for recommended number of antenatal care contacts, analysis of Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey, 2015–2016 (n=2943)

Study variablesNumber of antenatal care contacts
4–7 ANC contacts8 or more ANC contacts
RR* 95% CI‡P valueaRR‡95% CI‡P valueRR* 95% CI‡P valueaRR‡95% CI‡P value
Household factors
 Location of household
  Rural1.001.001.001.00
  Urban3.42(2.44 to 4.79)<0.0011.84(1.29 to 2.62)0.0019.62(6.30 to 14.68)<0.0012.56(1.64 to 4.00)<0.001
 Geographical zone
  Hilly zone1.001.00
  Coastal zone0.88(0.61 to 1.28)0.5011.10(0.64 to 1.88)0.739
  Delta zone1.43(1.02 to 2.01)0.0391.32(0.78 to 2.23)0.296
  Central plain zone1.15(0.83 to 1.57)0.3891.24(0.74 to 2.07)0.421
 Household wealth status
  Lowest quintile1.001.001.001.00
  Second lowest quintile1.30(0.99 to 1.72)0.0581.09(0.82 to 1.46)0.5511.93(1.26 to 2.93)0.0021.41(0.90 to 2.21)0.137
  Middle quintile1.77(1.30 to 2.40)<0.0011.19(0.87 to 1.64)0.2783.59(2.30 to 5.61)<0.0011.85(1.14 to 3.00)0.013
  Fourth quintile2.34(1.77 to 3.29)<0.0011.21(0.83 to 1.78)0.3066.56(4.23 to 10.18)<0.0012.04(1.25 to 3.33)0.005
  Highest quintile5.52(3.13 to 9.73)<0.0011.70(0.92 to 3.13)0.08727.65(14.58 to 52.44)<0.0013.20(1.61 to 6.36)0.001
Maternal/partner factors
 Mother’s current age (years)
  Under 201.001.00
  20–291.62(0.86 to 3.06)0.1341.94(0.84 to 4.50)0.120
  30–391.97(1.06 to 3.64)0.0322.37(1.04 to 5.38)0.039
  40 and over1.40(0.72 to 2.73)0.3221.08(0.45 to 2.61)0.864
 Mother’s education
  No education/primary1.001.001.001.00
  Secondary or higher2.51(2.00 to 3.15)<0.0011.33(1.03 to 1.73)0.0324.92(3.72 to 6.51)<0.0011.19(0.84 to 1.68)0.322
 Mother’s working status
  Not working1.001.00
  Agriculture-related work0.62(0.45 to 0.85)0.0030.38(0.24 to 0.60)<0.001
  Non-agriculture related work0.95(0.74 to 1.21)0.6711.13(0.84 to 1.54)0.418
 Husband’s working status
  Agriculture-related work1.001.001.001.00
  Non-agriculture related work1.98(1.55 to 2.53)<0.0011.09(0.83 to 1.41)0.5425.26(3.91 to 7.09)<0.0011.63(1.18 to 2.25)0.003
 Husband’s education
  No education/primary1.001.001.001.00
  Secondary or higher2.04(1.64 to 2.53)<0.0011.20(0.94 to 1.55)0.1454.98(3.72 to 6.67)<0.0011.76(1.27 to 2.43)0.001
Exposure to mass media
 Reading newspaper or magazine
  No1.001.001.001.00
  Yes1.95(1.56 to 2.43)<0.0011.29(1.01 to 1.66)0.0422.80(2.15 to 3.64)<0.0011.21(0.91 to 1.60)0.197
 Listening to radio
  No1.001.00
  Yes1.32(1.05 to 1.65)0.0161.19(0.91 to 1.56)0.193
 Watching television
  No1.001.00
  Yes1.87(1.47 to 2.39)<0.0012.61(1.97 to 3.47)<0.001
Birth history
 Birth rank
  4th birth rank and over1.001.00
  2nd–3rd birth rank1.31(1.03 to 1.68)0.0292.96(1.92 to 4.24)<0.001
  1st birth rank1.73(1.34 to 2.24)<0.0015.16(3.14 to 6.96)<0.001
 Preceding birth interval
  Birth interval >3 years1.001.00
  Birth interval <3 years1.43(1.10 to 1.86)0.0081.85(1.27 to 2.71)0.002
  First child1.90(1.41 to 2.55)<0.0013.48(2.29 to 5.29)<0.001
Pregnancy, birth and postbirth care
  Place of antenatal care
  Home/other1.001.001.001.00
  Public health facility2.16(1.63 to 2.88)<0.0011.62(1.19 to 2.20)0.0024.41(2.78 to 6.99)<0.0012.08(1.24 to 3.50)0.006
  Private health facility4.03(2.42 to 6.71)<0.0011.88(1.10 to 3.23)0.02220.40(11.20 to 37.12)<0.0013.62(1.86 to 6.97)<0.001
 Birth assistant
  None/traditional birth attendants /other untrained1.001.001.001.00
  Health professional2.78(2.17 to 3.55)<0.0011.59(1.21 to 2.09)0.0018.76(5.66 to 13.56)<0.0012.20(1.32 to 368)0.003
 Place of birth
  Non-health facility1.001.001.001.00
  Health facility2.40(1.88 to 3.06)<0.0011.26(0.93 to 1.71)0.1407.34(5.38 to 10.01)<0.0012.35(1.54 to 3.28)<0.001
 Mode of birth
  Non-caesarean section1.001.00
  Caesarean section1.97(1.47 to 2.60)<0.0014.97(3.65 to 6.76)<0.001
 Postnatal care
  No1.001.001.001.00
  Yes1.30(1.06 to 1.60)0.0111.45(1.17 to 1.80)0.0011.33(1.00 to 1.76)0.0441.83(1.35 to 2.47)<0.001
  • *Unadjusted risk ratio (RR).

  • †Adjusted risk ratio (aRR) and the risk ratio adjusted for all other variables in the table.

  • ‡Confidence interval (CI).