Table 2

Adjusted and unadjusted risk ratios for initiation of first antenatal care contact, analysis of Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey, 2015–2016 (n=2943)

Initiation of first antenatal care contact
Late initiation within second trimester (4–6 months)On time initiation within first trimester (0–3 months)
Study variablesRR*95% CI‡P valueaRR‡95% CI‡P valueRR*95% CI‡P valueaRR‡95% CI‡P value
Household factors
 Location of household
  Rural1.001.00
  Urban1.79(1.22 to 2.64)0.0031.32(0.87 to 1.99)0.191
 Geographical zone
  Hilly zone1.001.00
  Coastal zone1.03(0.62 to 1.72)0.9051.12(0.65 to 1.94)0.68
  Delta zone1.09(0.69 to 1.72)0.7041.00(0.60 to 1.65)0.996
  Central plain zone1.10(0.67 to 1.81)0.7091.49(0.84 to 2.64)0.168
 Household wealth status
  Lowest quintile1.001.00
  Second lowest quintile1.13(0.75 to 1.71)0.5631.21(0.80 to 1.82)0.367
  Middle quintile1.10(0.70 to 1.73)0.6821.06(0.68 to 1.65)0.802
  Fourth quintile1.95(1.21 to 3.16)0.0061.74(1.05 to 2.87)0.030
  Highest quintile2.45(1.43 to 4.17)0.0012.88(1.68 to 4.17)<0.001
Maternal/partner factors
 Mother’s current age (years)
  Under 201.001.001.001.00
  20–291.39(0.68 to 2.83)0.3611.28(0.60 to 2.72)0.5273.00(1.20 to 7.51)0.0192.85(1.07 to 7.58)0.00
  30–391.99(0.99 to 3.99)0.0531.66(0.77 to 3.58)0.1924.26(1.77 to 10.25)0.0014.07(1.53 to 10.84)0.00
  40 and over1.44(0.65 to 3.18)0.3641.34(0.56 to 3.22)0.5063.31(1.27 to 8.59)0.0143.79(1.29 to 11.11)0.00
 Mother’s education
  No education/primary1.001.001.001.00
  Secondary or higher1.79(1.29 to 2.48)0.0011.64(1.12 to 2.40)2.02(1.45 to 2.83)<0.0011.73(1.16 to 2.56)
 Mother’s working status
  Not working1.001.00
  Agriculture-related work0.80(0.49 to 1.33)0.3921.02(0.64 to 1.63)0.933
  Non-agriculture related work1.10(0.78 to 1.55)0.6011.12(0.79 to 1.61)0.520
 Husband’s working status
  Agriculture-related work1.001.00
  Non-agriculture related work1.41(0.99 to 1.99)0.0541.22(0.84 to 1.76)0.282
 Husband’s education
  No education/primary1.001.00
  Secondary or higher1.41(1.05 to 1.90)0.0231.52(1.13 to 2.04)0.005
Exposure to mass media
 Reading newspaper or magazine
  No1.001.001.001.00
  Yes1.57(1.14 to 2.17)0.0061.20(0.84 to 1.70)0.3092.06(1.48 to 2.86)<0.0011.51(1.06 to 2.14)0.022
 Listening to radio
  No1.001.00
  Yes0.98(0.69 to 1.40)0.9131.31(0.93 to 1.85)0.119
 Watching television
  No1.001.001.001.00
  Yes1.68(1.21 to 2.33)0.0021.47(1.04 to 2.09)0.0281.49(1.06 to 2.10)0.0231.22(0.85 to 1.76)0.283
Birth history
 Birth rank
  4th birth rank and over1.001.00
  2nd–3rd birth rank1.30(0.88 to 1.92)0.191.42(0.91 to 1.99)0.082
  1st birth rank1.09(0.72 to 1.65)0.6891.58(0.87 to 2.05)0.045
 Preceding birth interval
  Birth interval >3 years1.001.001.001.00
  Birth interval <3 years1.97(1.33 to 2.90)0.0011.71(1.15 to 2.54)0.0081.81(1.21 to 2.71)0.0041.47(0.97 to 2.22)0.070
  First child1.49(0.99 to 2.23)0.0561.26(0.80 to 2.00)0.3201.67(1.06 to 2.58)0.0201.47(0.90 to 2.40)0.121
Pregnancy, birth and postbirth care
 Place of antenatal care
  Home/other1.001.00
  Public health facility1.01(0.56 to 1.89)0.9611.10(0.70 to 2.74)0.673
  Private health facility0.81(0.44 to 1.48)0.4911.11(0.60 to 2.07)0.731
 Birth assistant
  None/traditional birth attendants/other untrained1.001.001.001.00
  Health professional1.84(1.29 to 2.62)0.0011.84(1.19 to 2.83)0.0062.27(1.57 to 3.28)<0.0012.34(1.45 to 3.77)0.001
 Place of birth
  Non-health facility1.001.001.001.00
  Health facility1.15(0.82 to 1.61)0.4140.65(0.42 to 1.03)0.0641.13(0.80 to 1.60)0.4820.55(0.34 to 0.88)0.013
 Mode of birth
  Non-caesarean section1.001.00
  Caesarean section0.92(0.62 to 1.36)0.6841.24(0.85 to 1.79)0.263
 Postnatal care
  No1.001.001.001.00
  Yes1.25(0.91 to 1.72)0.1711.22(0.88 to 1.68)0.2351.71(1.24 to 2.37)0.0011.60(1.16 to 2.23)0.005
  • *Unadjusted risk ratio (RR).

  • †Adjusted risk ratio (aRR) and the risk ratio adjusted for all other variables in the table.

  • ‡Confidence interval (CI).