Table 3

Violence experienced in the past 12 months and disability

Among women without disability (%)Among women with disability* (%)IPV risk
All studies
W1IPV risk
Volunteer-recruited studies
W2IPV risk
Household-level recruitment
W3
aOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)
Experienced physical IPV
 Sammanit Jeevan, Nepal8.08.01.17 (0.36 to 3.83)21.11 (0.34 to 3.62)6
 South Africa58.265.21.35 (0.91 to 2.01)81.35 (0.91 to 2.00)20
 Afghanistan20.035.52.29 (1.61 to 3.24)112.25 (1.59 to 3.19)27
 Rwanda-Couples35.644.21.49 (1.19 to 1.86)191.47 (1.18 to 1.84)48
 Ghana14.330.02.87 (1.95 to 4.23)222.95 (2.00 to 4.34)37
 Change Starts At Home, Nepal15.519.11.39 (0.81 to 2.41)211.42 (0.82 to 2.45)35
 Rwanda-community40.555.41.89 (1.51 to 2.37)161.91 (1.52 to 2.40)28
All studies25.744.31.79 (1.48 to 2.17)1001.60 (1.29 to 1.97)1002.05 (1.61 to 2.61)100
Experienced sexual IPV
 Sammanit Jeevan, Nepal4.76.01.39 (0.35 to 5.59)31.28 (0.32 to 5.15)8
 South Africa27.637.11.56 (1.04 to 2.32)91.55 (1.04 to 2.31)27
 Rwanda-Couples38.748.91.54 (1.23 to 1.92)221.51 (1.21 to 1.88)65
 Ghana10.035.05.08 (3.47 to 7.44)255.22 (3.57 to 7.65)37
 Change Starts At Home, Nepal17.430.32.13 (1.33 to 3.40)242.17 (1.36 to 3.47)35
 Rwanda-community44.855.61.57 (1.25 to 1.96)181.58 (1.26 to 1.98)28
All studies24.245.51.98 (1.36 to 2.89)1001.51 (1.25 to 1.84)1002.57 (1.45 to 4.58)100
Experienced emotional IPV
 Sammanit Jeevan, Nepal16.718.01.16 (0.50 to 2.68)21.16 (0.50 to 2.70)6
 South Africa63.379.62.26 (1.43 to 3.57)82.26 (1.43 to 3.57)20
 Afghanistan21.038.62.40 (1.71 to 3.38)112.41 (1.71 to 3.39)27
 Rwanda-Couples57.863.11.26 (1.01 to 1.58)191.27 (1.01 to 1.59)48
 Ghana20.639.32.58 (1.80 to 3.70)222.57 (1.80 to 3.68)37
 Change Starts At Home, Nepal28.441.61.84 (1.19 to 2.85)211.84 (1.19 to 2.84)35
 Rwanda61.472.81.70 (1.33 to 2.18)161.70 (1.33 to 2.17)28
All studies37.759.31.84 (1.49 to 2.27)1001.73 (1.24 to 2.40)1001.94 (1.56 to 2.41)100
Experienced economic IPV
 Sammanit Jeevan, Nepal20.714.00.69 (0.28 to 1.69)20.64 (0.26 to 1.56)6
 South Africa41.253.81.66 (1.14 to 2.44)81.66 (1.13 to 2.43)20
 Afghanistan9.322.82.95 (1.94 to 4.50)112.89 (1.90 to 4.40)27
 Rwanda-Couples39.051.21.68 (1.35 to 2.10)191.65 (1.32 to 2.05)48
 Ghana5.87.91.50 (0.78 to 2.87)221.56 (0.82 to 2.99)37
 Change Starts At Home, Nepal17.223.61.57 (0.95 to 2.60)211.62 (0.98 to 2.68)35
 Rwanda-community47.557.21.51 (1.20 to 1.89)161.53 (1.22 to 1.92)28
All studies23.442.61.66 (1.45 to 1.89)1001.68 (1.16 to 2.44)1001.55 (1.27 to 1.90)100
Sexual/physical IPV
 Sammanit Jeevan, Nepal10.712.01.27 (0.47 to 3.45)21.21 (0.44 to 3.27)6
 South Africa63.970.51.35 (0.9 to 2.05)81.35 (0.90 to 2.04)20
 Afghanistan20.035.52.25 (1.59 to 3.19)112.22 (1.57 to 3.15)27
 Rwanda-Couples52.763.61.61 (1.28 to 2.02)191.59 (1.27 to 1.99)48
 Ghana19.545.73.75 (2.63 to 5.33)223.83 (2.69 to 5.45)37
 Change Starts At Home, Nepal24.737.11.89 (1.22 to 2.95)211.92 (1.23 to 3.00)35
 Rwanda-community57.670.31.78 (1.40 to 2.27)161.79 (1.41 to 2.28)28
All studies35.057.61.93 (1.52 to 2.46)1001.66 (1.40 to 1.97)1002.35 (1.59 to 3.46)100
Any IPV
 Sammanit Jeevan, Nepal27.328.01.17 (0.57 to 2.39)21.17 (0.57 to 2.39)6
 South Africa80.587.11.65 (0.95 to 2.86)81.65 (0.95 to 2.86)20
 Afghanistan25.243.92.40 (1.72 to 3.35)112.40 (1.72 to 3.35)27
 Rwanda-Couples73.780.71.53 (1.17 to 2.01)191.53 (1.17 to 2.01)48
 Ghana29.854.33.04 (2.15 to 4.31)223.04 (2.15 to 4.31)37
 Change Starts At Home, Nepal43.153.91.64 (1.07 to 2.52)211.64 (1.07 to 2.52)35
 Rwanda-community76.584.21.68 (1.25 to 2.26)161.68 (1.25 to 2.26)28
All studies50.371.71.88 (1.52 to 2.31)1001.75 (1.36 to 2.24)1002.05 (1.49 to 2.84)100
  • Models account for clustering and adjusted for age of participant (study mean-centred).

  • W1: study weight in pooled analysis of all studies.

  • W2: study weight in pooled analysis of volunteer-recruited studies.

  • W3: study weight in pooled analysis of studies with household-level recruitment.

  • *Women were classified as having a disability if their response to at least one of the questions on disability was ‘Yes, a lot of difficulty’ or ‘cannot do at all’.

  • aOR, adjusted OR; IPV, intimate partner violence.