Table 3

Progressivity, pure horizontal equity and reranking associated with the Chinese healthcare financing system in 2008

Income quintiles/indexPer capita household expenditureIndirect taxDirect taxUEBMI†NRCMS‡OOP paymentTotal
UrbanRuralUrbanRuralUrbanRuralUrbanRuralUrbanRural
Gini/CI0.2874**0.3061**0.2661**0.2875**0.7360**0.8981**0.2546**0.1405**0.3577**0.3764**0.3077**0.3634**
95% CI(0.2698 to 03050)(0.2953 to 0.3169)(0.2516 to 0.2807)(0.2773 to 0.2977)(0.5521 to 0.9199)(0.5690 to 1.2273)(0.2281 to 0.2811)(0.1094 to 0.1717)(0.1526 to 0.5627)(0.3132 to 0.4396)(0.2053 to 0.4101)(0.3052 to 0.4217)
KI−0.0213**−0.0186**0.4486**0.5921**−0.0328*−0.1656**0.07030.0703*0.02030.0574*
95% CI(−0.0354 to –0.0071)(−0.0262 to –0.0110)(0.2708 to 0.6265)(0.2658 to 0.9184)(−0.0601 to –0.0055)(−0.1963 to –0.1348)(−0.1250 to 0.2655)(0.0117 to 0.1290)(−0.0721 to 0.1126)(0.0037 to 0.1110)
g0.0039610.0038860.0005680.0001410.0619340.0057410.0671740.1156900.1338350.125458
V−0.000061−0.0000540.0002630.000086−0.001768−0.0009400.0055290.0099400.0041020.009019
H0.0000240.0000190.0000080.0000030.0007260.0000260.0019260.0028890.0026880.002965
R0.0000000.0000000.0000000.0000000.0002050.0000010.0052850.0104730.0057920.010627
RE−0.000085−0.0000730.0002540.000083−0.002698−0.000967−0.001682−0.003422−0.004377−0.004573
RE/RE (%)100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00
V/RE (%)72.1873.88103.32103.0565.5197.23−328.75−290.49−93.72−197.24
H/RE (%)−27.82−26.123.323.05−26.91−2.65−114.50−84.42−61.41−64.84
R/RE (%)0.000.000.000.00−7.58−0.12−314.25−306.06−132.31−232.40
  • *P<0.05, **p<0.01.

  • †UEBMI was exclusively implemented in urban areas.

  • ‡NRCMS was exclusively implemented in rural areas.

  • CI, Concentration Index; g, payments as fraction of income; H, horizontal inequity; KI, Kakwani Index; NRCMS, New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme; OOP, out of pocket; R, reranking; RE, total redistributive effect; UEBMI, Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance; V, vertical redistribution effect.