Table 1

Characteristics of the study participants in urban areas

Variable200820132018
ObsMean/
percentage
SDObsMean/
percentage
SDObsMean/
percentage
SD
Female81551.84%266651.83%289851.32%
Age157245.9120.93514447.3820.97564743.8023.10
 0–14 years1296.134.354255.854.248085.024.45
 14–60 years100040.3812.99309041.3412.81316139.7112.18
 60+ years443707.55162969.667.52167870.187.42
No of household members5982.621.0318002.861.2418603.041.35
Equivalent household expenditure (RMB)*59821 979.1713 736.49180025 125.5616 384.83186032 775.0824 294.23
 First quintile1189574.102231.3736011 426.12599.80337212 427.323366.51
 Second quintile12114 881.621233.7836017 361.41465.79137220 565.181850.79
 Third quintile12019 307.011305.5036022 552.581355.41937227 502.792121.26
 Fourth quintile12024 749.882049.3436028 379.042136.81437235 914.463351.26
 Fifth quintile11941 397.4518 475.2636045 908.6725 118.7537267 550.7033 438.75
Health insurance
 None17110.88%1512.94%2013.56%
 Any140189.12%499397.06%544696.44%
  • *All year 2008’s and 2013’s nominal prices have been adjusted to real prices in year 2018 by using China’s Consumer Price Index.

  • RMB, renminbi.