Table 1

Study characteristics

StudyGeographical locationOutbreak settingPopulationContagious diseaseOutbreak periodInformation regarding P1Confirmed casesInformation regarding the casesFatalitiesService responsible for outbreak control
Awofeso (2001)43AustraliaPsychiatric ward within the correctional facility17 PIP, 18 prison officers and 24 staffInfluenza type A (H3N2)29 August–8 September 2000P1 was infected during a visit from a member of the public9 cases6 PIP, 2 nursing staff, and one patient care assistant; Age (range 25–70 years); All of non-Aboriginal backgroundNoneCHS
Besney (2017)44CanadaMaximum security remand facilityApproximately 1200 PIPInfluenza type A (H1N1)10–18 December 2013P1 was transferred from another correctional facility that was experiencing increased influenza activity6 casesAll males; Age (M=41, range 24–54 years); 3 Canadian-born non-Indigenous, 2 Canadian-born Indigenous and one foreign-bornNoneA combination of CHS and CPH
Bur (2003)45USAUrban community and jail344 PIP housed with P1TBApril 2000– September 2001P1 was diagnosed in the community; Home visit revealed that his house was used for trafficking illicit drugs, and was frequented by many people; He had been in jail from December 1999 through January 200018 casesAge (M=39, range 1–66 years); Male (78%); African American (89%); HIV-seropositive (39%)One deceasedA combination of CHS and CPH
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2000)46USAState correctional facility housing HIV-infected PIP323 PIP housed in the same dormitory as P1TB1999–2000P1 (who was HIV-positive) was diagnosed at a community hospital31 casesAll current or former PIP; All non-Hispanic Black men born in the USA and HIV-seropositive; Age (M=36, range 23–56 years)NoneA combination of CHS and CPH
CDC (2004)47USAMultiple correctional facilities800 possible contacts, 318 of which were identifiedTB2002–2003P1 visited a homeless shelter, 3 different jails and a state prison during the infectious period2 cases2 TB cases and 47 additional LTBI cases; Active cases were cellmates of P1NoneA combination of CHS and CPH
CDC (2012)48USATwo correctional facilities: one medium to maximum security prison and one minimum security prisonFacility A (916 PIP and 410 staff members); Facility B (222 PIP and 65 staff members)Influenza type A (H1N1) and type BMarch 2011Not providedFacility A: 6 cases
Facility B: 1 case
Facility A (influenza A(five were H1N1pdm09 and one was unsubtypable), Age (M=37, range 24-57 years, only one had been vaccinated previously); faciliaty B (influenza B)One deceasedA combination of CHS and CPH
Chao (2017)49China (Taiwan)Prison2690 PIPInfluenza type A (H1N1)February–April 2013Not provided5 cases2 had HCV/HIV and one suffered from hypertensionNoneA combination of CHS and CPH
Chatterji (2013)50AustraliaHigh-security correctional facilityApproximately 900 PIP and 450 staffMeaslesOctober–November 2013Not provided17 cases14 PIP and three correctional centre staff; age (M=28, range 18–41 years); Sex (3 female and 14 male); Indigenous status (one Indigenous, 13 non-Indigenous and 3 unknown)NoneA combination of CHS and CPH
Crick (2014)51UKAdult prison (category C/D)210 PIPMeaslesDecember 2012–February 2013P1 was a member of the prison staff; had free access to all areas of the prison; continued to work throughout the prodromal period8 casesThree distinct waves of infectionNoneCHS
Gétaz (2010)52SwitzerlandPre-trial prison540 PIP, 243 prison officers and 37 healthcare workersVaricellaApril 2009P1 was a PID who sought medical attention 48 hours after the beginning of a rash characteristic of chickenpox2 susceptible casesRemained in a small cell with P1 and were considered as household contactsNoneCHS
Guthrie (2012)53AustraliaCustodial facility (all security levels)Average daily occupancy in 2009 (163 PIP), in 2010 (214 PIP)Influenza type A (H1N1)2009–2011 (during influenza season: 1 July–30 September)Not provided2009: 1 case (also reported in Turner and Levy, 2010)
2010: 4 cases
2011: 2 cases
Not providedNoneCHS
Jones (2003)54USAUrban jail and surrounding communityNot providedTB1995–1997 (jail outbreak period); January 1998–August 1999 (follow-up period in surrounding community)Not providedJail: 43 cases
Community: 81 cases
6 of jail cases and 19 of community cases were infected with the jail outbreak strainNoneA combination of CHS and CPH
Junghans (2018)55UKPrisonMore than 1500 PIPMeaslesJuly 2016P1 was a member of the prison staff8 cases1 probable, 5 possible and 2 confirmed casesNoneA combination of CHS and CPH
Lambert (2008)56USAPrivately managed medium-security state facilityDaily census of approximately 2000 PIPTB2003–2004Not provided7 casesAll males; age (M=34, range 24–58 years); 1 HIV-seropositive; four reported drug or alcohol abuseNoneA combination of CHS and CPH
Leung (2014)57UKState prisonApproximately 2000 staff and 5000 PIPVaricella16–23 January 2010 and 12 February–25 March 2011 (rash onsets)P1 worked in the kitchen11 casesAge (M=37, range 19–58 years); None were immunocompromised or had any varicella-related complications; nine cases associated with the 2 outbreaks and 2 sporadic casesNoneA combination of CHS and CPH
Levy (2003)58AustraliaFour prisons, one prison hospital, the prison transport system, one courthouseOver 300 PIP exposed to varicella during the outbreakVaricella4 weeks (exact dates not reported)P1 was infected during a family visiting session6 cases5 confirmed cases and 1 probable case; 3 cases in prison A, 2 cases were infected in court transport van and 1 case at the prison hospitalNoneA combination of CHS and CPH
Mohle-Boetani (2002)59USACorrectional-facility housing unit for PIP infected with HIVMore than 3200 PIP; 472 residing in the HIV unitTB1995Not provided15 casesAge (M=35, range 30–43 years)Two deceasedA combination of CHS and CPH
Moreau (2016)60CanadaYouth custody facilityApproximately 280 youths, 14 health services staff and 85 security staffVaricellaJuly 2013P1 was a male youth2 casesAll males; age (M=14, range 13–18 years); all cases and contacts were Canadian bornNoneA combination of CHS and CPH
Murphy (2018)61UKThree correctional facilitiesNot providedVaricellaMay 2016–January 2017Prison A: P1 was a PIP who had herpes zoster
Prison B: P1 was a PIP with ocular herpes zoster (not recognised as disseminated herpes zoster at that time)
Prison C: P1 was a PIP who had herpes zoster lesions
Prison A: 5 cases
Prison B: 3 cases
Prison C: 1 case
Age (M=40, range 29–49 years); None were immunocompromised; one had prior varicella infectionNoneA combination of CHS and CPH
Njuguna (2020)70USACorrectional and detention facilityApproximately 700 PIDCOVID-19April–May 2020P1 was a staff member who reported symptoms of COVID-19 and later tested positive for SARS-CoV-2110 casesFirst 39 cases identified through active monitoring (29 March–7 May); Additional 71 cases identified through an investigation led by the Louisiana Department of Health and CDC (7–21 May)NoneA combination of CHS and CPH
Parcell (2014)69UKTwo male-only prisonsNot providedAdenovirus 14p11 Jan 2011–25 July 2011Not provided15 cases (13 confirmed and 2 possible)Of the 13 confirmed cases: 7 PIP, 1 staff and 5 from non-prison communities; All of white Scottish origin; Age (range 23–70 years); Male (76.9%)Three deceasedA combination of CHS and CPH
Saunders (2001)62USAFederal prisons25 707 PIPTBJanuary 1997–June 1999Not provided75 cases46 cases (61%) were foreign-born; 15 (20%) were HIV-positiveNoneCHS
Saunders (2001)62USADetention centre1830 PIPTBJune 1997–December 1998P1 was a PID7 casesNot providedNoneCHS
Sosa (2008)63USAState-run jail and prisonNot providedTBMay 2005–May 2006P1 was a US-born, HIV-negative PIP whose TST was negative2 casesUS born; Age (range 20–29 years)NoneA combination of CHS and CPH
Turner (2010)64AustraliaAdult custodial facility140 PIPInfluenza type A (H1N1)July 2009P1 was a 46 year old male PID and was infected during a family visiting session1 caseAge (M=36 years); Remand statusNoneA combination of CHS and CPH
Valdarchi (2009)65ItalyPrison for women424 PIPVaricella13 April–2 May 2005P1 was a 26 year old HIV-positive Italian woman5 cases3 Italians and 2 Nigerians; two were HIV-positive; all were hospitalised on the end of the onset of symptomsOne deceasedCHS
Venkat (2019)66USAPrivately operated detention facility housing US Immigration and Customs Enforcement PID1425 PID and 510 staff membersMeasles25 May–8 August 2016P1 was a PID who was hospitalised with symptoms32 cases23 PID and nine staff; Age (M=36, range 19–52 years); male (84%); three hospitalisationsNoneA combination of CHS and CPH
Walkty (2011)67CanadaTwo prisons (one medium security)135 PIP and 187 staffMumps12 January–5 February 2009P1 was a 28 year old PIP with clinical symptoms who was transferred from Prison B to Prison APrison A: 5 cases
Prison B: 4 cases
Age (range 28–34 years); all males of self-identified Aboriginal ethnicityNoneCHS
Young (2004)68AustraliaFive prisons (Two maximum, one medium and two minimum; Three metropolitan and two rural)Approximately 7900 PIPInfluenza type A (H3N2)January 2003Not provided37 cases35 PIP, one healthcare staff and one custodial officer; First 20 cases shared the same unit; Another 8 cases were from the same prisonNoneA combination of CHS and CPH
  • CHS, correctional healthcare services; CPH, community public health; HCV, hepatitis C virus; LTBI, latent tuberculosis infection; PID, people in detention; PIP, people in prison; TB, tuberculosis; TST, tuberculin skin test.