Table 1

Summary of characteristics of included studies that investigated non-biomedical factors influencing outpatient and community antibiotic use in China

CharacteristicNumber of studiesStudies
Total5413–36 38–63 73–76
Language
 Chinese1129 33 35 41 42 44 46 49 62 63 76
 English4313–28 30–32 34 36 38–40 43 45 47 48 50–61 73–75
Year of study
 2001–2005226 39
 2006–2010315 33 58
 2011–20151916 18 21 23 24 29–32 34 40–44 47 49 57 73
 2016–later3013 14 17 19 20 22 25 27 28 35 36 38 45 46 48 50–56 59–63 74–76
Study design
Quantitative study4413–15 17–26 28–30 33–36 38–55 62 63 73–76
 Longitudinal153
 Cross-sectional3813–15 17–22 26 28–30 33–36 38–52 62 63 73–76
 Experiment623–25 53–55
Qualitative study527 57–59 61
Mixed-methods516 31 32 56 60
 Experiment156
Study region
Mainland China
 East1423 24 34 35 40–42 46 48 49 52 60 62 63
 Central714 18 27 47 61 75 76
 West622 29 43 44 58 59
 Across regions1713 17 19 20 25 28 36 38 45 50 51 53–57 74
Hong Kong915 16 21 26 30–32 39 73
Taiwan133
Urbanicity
 Urban1028 33 34 41 42 55 61 62 73 76
 Rural714 25 27 52 57 59 60
 Both3313 15–24 26 29–32 35 36 38 39 43–47 49–51 53 54 56 58 63
 Unknown440 48 74 75
Participants
Healthcare consumers
 General public
 (adults >18 years)
2914–17 19–21 29–36 38 40 43 44 46–50 52 57 62 63 73
 Parents or caregivers813 18 28 41 42 45 51 76
Healthcare providers
 Healthcare professionals and/or community pharmacies1322–26 39 53–55 60 61 74 75
Both sides of healthcare system427 56 58 59
Antibiotic misuse in the community
 Self-medication with antibiotics3413–21 27–36 40–46 48–52 58 62 63
 Taking antibiotics as prophylaxis1213 17–20 36 38 43 50–52 57
 Over-the-counter purchases/sales2215 16 18 21 28 30–33 41 44 48 50 52–59 76
  Patient side reported1915 16 18 21 28 30–33 41 44 48 50 52 56–59 76
  Experiment453–56
 Household storage of antibiotics2313 14 16–21 28 29 31 32 35 41–43 46 50–52 58 62 63
 Demand for antibiotic prescriptions2313 16–21 27–36 38 47 57 62 63 76