Table 2

Effects of COVID-19 on utilisation of healthcare services (%)

Total healthcare expenditureUtilisation frequencyPer capita expenditure
Panel A (medium-risk vs low-risk cities)
Treati * Weekt1−4.4* (2.4)−3.7*** (1.1)0.1 (2.1)
Treati * Weekt2−1.4 (2.9)−4.6*** (1.6)6.3 (4.0)
Treati * Weekt3−14.8*** (2.6)−8.6*** (0.9)−7.3** (3.0)
 R20.4150.7500.177
 Observations568856885688
 No of cities316316316
Panel B (high-risk vs low-risk cities)
Treati*Weekt1−5.1* (2.7)−4.0*** (1.3)−1.0 (2.5)
Treati*Weekt2−10.4*** (3.1)−11.1*** (2.1)−5.5 (4.5)
Treati*Weekt3−26.4*** (2.7)−15.9*** (1.1)−18.4*** (3.4)
 R20.3440.6900.154
 Observations311431143114
 No of cities173173173
Panel C (Hubei vs low-risk cities)
Treati*Weekt121.2 (17.8)−6.6*** (2.0)29.2 (18.3)
Treati*Weekt2−11.1 (11.2)−13.6*** (3.0)12.2 (13.1)
Treati*Weekt3−27.5*** (7.7)−24.4*** (2.0)10.6 (8.3)
 R20.3110.6680.168
 Observations288028802880
 No of cities160160160
Fixed effectsCity fixed effects and time fixed effects in panel A, panel B and panel C
  • This table reports the results of estimating equation (1). The control and treatment groups for panels A, B and C are described in the text. City fixed effects and time fixed effects are included in panels A, B and C. SEs of coefficients are clustered at week level and reported in the parentheses behind the coefficients.

  • *Significant at the 10% level; **significant at the 5% level; ***significant at the 1% level.