Table 2

Multilevel multivariable logistic regression of non-retention in care by age group

CharacteristicsYoung adolescents (10–14 years)Older adolescents (15–19 years)Young adults (20–24 years)Equality of coefficient (p value)
Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 1Model 2Model 3
ORaORaORORaORaORORaORaOR
Level 1: Individuals
Sex5.02 (0.00)
Female
Male0.860.860.900.891.28**1.28**
Marital status0.44 (0.65)
Single
Married1.151.140.850.850.890.89
Others1.131.120.910.900.970.96
Education level0.11 (0.89)
None/informal
Primary0.890.891.031.031.011.00
Secondary and higher1.011.010.920.920.950.94
Year of ART initiation1.37 (0.25)
2015
20160.830.830.910.900.990.99
20170.850.860.75**0.74**0.910.91
WHO stage0.42 (0.66)
1
20.830.830.960.960.920.91
30.820.820.940.941.011.01
41.251.271.131.121.021.02
Baseline immunosuppression0.23 (0.79)
None (CD4 ≥500 cells/mL)
Mild (CD4 ≥350–499 cells/mL)1.091.091.031.031.081.08
Advanced (CD4 ≥200–349 cells/mL)1.241.241.021.031.091.09
Severe (CD4 <200 cells/mL)1.311.311.131.151.171.17
Baseline TB status0.11 (0.89)
No signs or symptoms of TB
Presumptive or confirmed TB1.011.010.960.941.021.01
On IPT0.880.891.251.260.820.82
ART regimen at baseline6.23 (0.00)
ABC or AZT/3TC/ ATVr or LPVr
ABC or AZT/3TC/EFV or NVP1.471.482.362.362.042.18
TDF/3TC/EFV or NVP1.521.502.792.791.821.87
TDF/3TC/ATVr or LPVr1.041.061.071.073.343.39
Others0.23*0.25*1.001.000.14*0.15*
Level 2: Health facility
Level of care2.55 (0.08)
Secondary
Tertiary1.100.931.38
Patient volume (AYLHIV)1.48 (0.23)
<200
200–4001.071.201.29
>5001.030.650.67
Designated AYFS facility1.38 (0.25)
Yes
No0.851.040.93
Viral load testing coverage0.99**0.93**0.98**0.79 (0.45)
Random effects model
Health facility level
Variance estimate0.47**0.45**0.35**0.52**0.50**0.43**0.54**0.54**0.45**
Explained variation (%)Ref4.26*22.22†Ref3.84‡14.00§Ref0.00¶16.67**
ICC (%)0.120.120.100.140.130.120.140.140.12
  • Model 1 is the null model; baseline model without any variable.

  • Model 2 is model adjusted for individual-level variables.

  • Model 3 is additionally adjusted for facility-level covariates.

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.00.

  • *Explained facility-level variance due to individual factors alone=(0.47–0.45)/0.47=4.26%.

  • †Explained facility-level variance due to facility characteristics=(0.45–0.35)/0.45=22.22%.

  • ‡Explained facility-level variance due to individual factors=(0.52–0.50)/0.52=3.84%.

  • §Explained facility-level variance due to facility characteristics=(0.50–0.43)/0.50=14%.

  • ¶Explained facility-level variance due to individual factors alone=(0.54–0.54)/0.54=0%.

  • **Explained facility-level variance due to facility characteristics=(0.54–0.45)/0.54=16.67%.

  • aOR, adjusted OR; ART, antiretroviral therapy; AYFS, Adolescent and Youth Friendly Service; AYLHIV, adolescents and youths living with HIV; ICC, intracluster correlation; IPT, Isoniazide Preventive Therapy.