Table 2

Baseline characteristics of participants with high risk of CVD

Total high risk participants
n=93 200
Group 1—available and affordable
n=34 974
Group 2—
available but unaffordable
n=22 918
Group 3—
unavailable
n=20 022
Missing
n=15 286
Age (years), median (SD), missing: 254.7 (9.6)54.4 (9.3)54.9 (9.7)54.5 (9.7)55.2 (9.7)
Female, n (%), missing: 145 700 (49.0%)16 621 (47.5%)11 419 (49.8%)9423 (47.1%)8237 (53.9%)
Educational level, n (%), missing: 261
 None13 924 (15.0%)2542 (7.3%)4136 (18.1%)4679 (23.5%)2567 (16.8%)
 Primary school27 909 (30.0%)7318 (20.9%)7639 (33.5%)7214 (36.2%)5738 (37.6%)
 Secondary/high school32 637 (35.1%)12 661 (36.2%)9029 (39.6%)6536 (32.8%)4411 (28.9%)
 Trade school4432 (4.8%)2536 (7.3%)690 (3.0%)589 (3.0%)617 (4.0%)
 College/university13 740 (14.8%)9733 (27.9%)1269 (5.6%)850 (4.3%)1888 (12.4%)
 Unknown297 (0.3%)147 (0.4%)44 (0.2%)84 (0.4%)22 (0.1%)
Global Wealth Index country specific tertiles, missing: 188
 Tertile 130 357 (32.6%)7499 (21.4%)8099 (35.4%)9493 (47.5%)5266 (34.8%)
 Tertile 230 676 (33.0%)11 091 (31.7%)7963 (34.8%)6477 (32.4%)5145 (34.0%)
 Tertile 331 979 (34.4%)16 378 (46.8%)6847 (29.9%)4013 (20.1%)4741 (31.3%)
Smoking status, n (%), missing: 723
 Former smoker17 156 (18.6%)9100 (26.1%)2669 (11.8%)2232 (11.3%)3155 (20.8%)
 Current smoker30 926 (33.4%)9695 (27.8%)8503 (37.5%)7743 (39.2%)4985 (32.8%)
 Never smoke44 395 (48.0%)16 044 (46.1%)11 525 (50.8%)9767 (49.5%)7059 (46.4%)
Number of people in the household, median (Q1, Q3) missing: 11 3863.0 (2.0–4.0)3.0 (2.0–5.0)4.0 (2.0–5.0)3.0 (2.0–5.0)3.0 (2.0–5.0)
Urban/rural living, n (%), missing: 0
 Urban53 151 (57.0%)26 163 (74.8%)13 208 (57.6%)5623 (28.1%)8157 (53.4%)
 Rural40 049 (43.0%)8811 (25.2%)9710 (42.4%)14 399 (71.9%)7129 (46.6%)
History of hypertension, n (%), missing: 20531 546 (33.9%)12 638 (36.2%)7592 (33.2%)5869 (29.4%)5447 (35.7%)
History of diabetes, n (%), missing: 15912 522 (13.5%)5524 (15.8%)3182 (13.9%)1847 (9.3%)1969 (12.9%)
History of coronary heart disease, n (%), missing: 1725774 (6.2%)2267 (6.5%)1219 (5.3%)1401 (7.0%)887 (5.8%)
History of stroke, n (%), missing: 1792547 (2.7%)847 (2.4%)632 (2.8%)644 (3.2%)424 (2.8%)
Use of preventative medication:
 Antiplatelets6037 (6.5%)3114 (8.9%)861 (3.8%)836 (4.2%)1226 (8.0%)
 Statins4761 (5.1%)3189 (9.1%)508 (2.2%)239 (1.2%)825 (5.4%)
 BP lowering20 852 (22.4%)9517 (27.2%)4174 (18.2%)2967 (14.8%)4194 (27.4%)
  • Group 1—individuals from communities where all three were available and affordable, group 2—individuals from communities where all three were available but not affordable to them, group 3—individuals from communities where all three were not available.

  • High risk of CVD was defined as having any of the following conditions: history of hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, diabetes, age >55, former or current smoker.

  • All p-values for differences between groups were <0.001

  • BP, blood pressure; CVD, cardiovascular disease.