Table 3

Excess costs and QALY loss in Beijing population associated with cardiovascular diseases that are attributable to PM2.5 ambient air pollution in 2015

Excess costs* (million)QALY loss†NML‡ (million)
Male
 Age 18–19US$0.330US$1.0
 Age 20–24US$0.7371US$9.2
 Age 25–29US$2.82598US$62.7
 Age 30–34US$2.21395US$34.4
 Age 35–39US$4.02795US$68.4
 Age 40–44US$4.52942US$72.3
 Age 45–49US$6.53043US$76.7
 Age 50–54US$8.32610US$68.5
 Age 55–59US$6.13881US$95.6
 Age 60–64US$12.54160US$108.4
 Age 65–69US$5.24697US$113.5
 Age 70–74US$7.04774US$117.0
 Age 75–79US$12.24730US$121.3
 Age 80–84US$10.14699US$118.5
 Age 85–89US$5.41461US$39.1
Male totalUS$87.944 186US$1106.4
Female
 Age 18–19US$0.11US$0.1
 Age 20–24US$0.4175US$4.4
 Age 25–29US$0.6246US$6.3
 Age 30–34US$0.7415US$10.3
 Age 35–39US$0.6359US$8.9
 Age 40–44US$0.7581US$14.1
 Age 45–49US$1.9701US$18.1
 Age 50–54US$4.53215US$78.6
 Age 55–59US$8.04458US$110.7
 Age 60–64US$5.74169US$101.8
 Age 65–69US$7.94837US$119.4
 Age 70–74US$8.35610US$137.6
 Age 75–79US$7.29891US$235.2
 Age 80–84US$6.47853US$187.4
 Age 85–89US$7.05878US$142.5
Female totalUS$60.148 388US$1175.4
TotalUS$147.992 574US$2281.8
  • *Excess costs were the difference between the costs of the population (or the population in a certain age group) when exposed to the PM2.5 concentration of 105 µg/m3 and the costs of the same population when exposed to the PM2.5 concentration of 35 µg/m3.

  • †QALY loss was the difference between the QALYs of the population (or the population in a certain age group) when exposed to the PM2.5 concentration of 35 µg/m3 and the QALYs of the same population when exposed to the PM2.5 concentration of 105 µg/m3.

  • ‡NML was the sum of excess costs and monetised QALY loss.

  • NML, net monetary loss; PM, particulate matter; QALY, quality-adjusted life-years.