Table 4

Efficacy of named interventions evaluated more than once

InterventionNumber RCTsNumber QEIntervention studiesRisk of biasCountriesWB country incomeSRHR domain 1–7†Outcome level/conclusions
(+: positive effect; −: nil effect, −: some positive/nil effects)
BehaviouralAttitudinalBiologicalOverall
C-Change20152 Schuler (2012)*HighTanzaniaLIC1++-
153 Schuler (2012)*HighGuatemalaMIC1+
Coaching Boys into Men11121 Miller (2012)Some concernsUSAHIC6+−+−+−
122 Miller (2014)*ModerateIndiaMIC7+−+−
35 Das (2012)*SeriousIndiaMIC7+−+
Duluth Model6256 Feder (2000)HighUSAHIC7--
57 Feder (2002)High--
58 Feder (2004)High--
110 Labriola (2005)HighUSAHIC7
36 Davis (2000)*HighUSAHIC7+−
164 Taylor (2009)*HighUSAHIC7+−
119 Maxwell (2004)*HighUSAHIC7+
163 Taylor (2001)*HighUSAHIC7+−
75 Harrel (1991)*SeriousUSAHIC7
112 Lin (2009)*SeriousNepalLIC7+−
Male Norms Initiative02141 Pulerwitz (2006)SeriousBrazilMIC4 to 7++++
142 Pulerwitz (2010)ModerateUSAHIC4 to 7++
Program H04141 Pulerwitz (2006)*SeriousBrazilMIC3++++
142 Pulerwitz (2010)*SeriousEthiopiaLIC4 to 7++
169 Verma (2008)*ModerateIndiaMIC3++
85 Instituto Promundo (2012)*SeriousBrazil, India, ChileMIC, HIC7++
Safe Dates2060 Foshee (1998)HighUSAHIC6+++−+−
61 Foshee (2000)High+−
63 Foshee (2005)High++
62 Foshee (2004)*HighUSAHIC6
Stepping Stones3191 Jewkes (2008)HighSouth AfricaMIC4 to 7+−+−+−
85 Instituto Promundo (2012)*SeriousBrazil, India, ChileMIC, HIC7++
152 Schuler (2012)*HighTanzaniaLIC1+
153 Schuler (2012)*HighGuatemalaMIC1+
  • *Study/Paper examines adaptation or element of intervention.

  • †WHO SRHR domains: (1) helping people realise their desired family size; (2) ensuring the health of pregnant women/girls and their new-born infants; (3) preventing unsafe abortion; (4) promoting sexual health and well-being; (5) promoting sexual and reproductive health in disease outbreaks; (6) promoting healthy adolescence for a healthy future; (7) preventing and responding to violence against women/girls.

  • HIC, high-income country; LIC, low-income country; MIC, middle-income country; ; QE, quasi-experimental study; RCT, randomised controlled trial; SRHR, sexual and reproductive health and rights; WB, World Bank.