Table 3

Definition and examples of Gender-transformative programming mechanisms

Behaviour change mechanismsBehaviour change wheel definitionGender-transformative examples in intervention studies
EducationIncreasing knowledge or understandingInformation on concepts of sexual freedom, coercion and consent, possible consequences, different contexts, situations and interactions.
PersuasionUsing communication to induce positive or negative feelings or stimulate actionGender Dialogue Groups for women and male partner (or male family member) brought together to reflect on financial decisions and goals and sought to address household gender inequities; underscoring all sessions were messages on importance of non-violence in the home, respect and communication between men and women and value of women in the household.
IncentivisationCreating expectation of rewardSports, particularly weekly football matches, used as venue for dialogue and opportunity to convey gender equality workshop themes.
CoercionCreating expectation of punishment or costCourt-ordered requirements for attendance/participation, limitations on confidentiality, protocol around partner safety. Mandatory fee-paying.
TrainingImparting skillsInteractive teaching, small group discussion, scripting behaviour through vignettes and role plays, proverbs, songs, stories and games—to engage and facilitate skills development challenging gender-based violence (eg, norms that challenge legally permissible wife beating). Emphasised communication, assertiveness and negotiation skills requisite for practicing safer sex.
RestrictionUsing rules to reduce the opportunity to engage in the target behaviourNot available (N/A).
Suggested potential example: curfew to prevent underage drinking associated with unintended teenage pregnancy.
Environmental restructuringChanging the physical or social contextCommunity activities to enhance availability of dating violence services from which adolescents can seek help.
ModellingProviding an example for people to aspire to or imitateProgramme peers or leaders, eg, sports coaches, challenging harmful normative attitudes and behaviours within community such as acceptability of violence against women and encourage positive male behaviours, such as positive parenting, that participants could identify with and emulate in their own lives.
Public declaration of community leaders from within communities for abandonment of Female genital cutting.
EnablementIncreasing means/reducing barriers to increase capability or opportunityPostintervention ‘check-in’ sessions with programme facilitators to review and support personal risk reduction goals in prevention of sexual/dating violence.
 Communication/marketingUsing print, electronic, telephonic or broadcast media to convey messages to large population groupsSocial marketing campaign targeted to about 3000 young people called ‘Budi muško’ or ‘Be a man’. The overall theme of campaign was to challenge rigid norms of masculinity.
 GuidelinesCreating documents that recommend or mandate practice. This includes all changes to service provisionN/A.
Suggested potential example: national-level support for inclusion of men in antenatal care and women’s health needs in preparation for the birth of an infant.
 FiscalUsing the tax system to reduce or increase the financial costN/A.
Suggested potential example: tax incentives for businesses offering paternity leave.
 RegulationEstablishing rules or principles of behaviour or practiceN/A.
Suggested potential example: national move to mandatory relationship and sexuality education in secondary schools.
 LegislationMaking or changing lawsN/A.
Suggested potential example: national government level legal prohibition of child marriage.
 Environmental/social planningDesigning and/or controlling the physical or social environmentN/A.
Suggested potential example: federal government level provision of sufficient abortion clinics in every state to ensure nationwide access.
 Service provisionDelivering a serviceN/A.
Suggested potential example: government level initiative to deliver community youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services.