Table 3

Summary of lockdown measures in nine sub-Saharan African countries (March-June 2020)

Geographic containmentClosures and prohibitionsHome confinement
Ghana21/3–National borders closed to international travellers.
There were travel restrictions in and out of Accra and Kumasi during the lockdown, except people travelling with essentials including food crops.
16/3–prohibition of gatherings of >25 persons. Closures: (i) schools, colleges and universities; (ii) religious buildings; (iii) non-essential shops; (iv) restaurants, bars and cafes; (v) recreational parks and facilities.
20/4–businesses and other workplaces allowed to reopen with physical distancing and hygiene protocols. Ban on gatherings and closure of schools, colleges and universities remain in place.
30/3–home confinement in the Accra and Greater Kumasi metropolitan areas, initially for 2 weeks then extended for an additional week.
20/4–home confinement in Accra and greater Kumasi discontinued.
Nigeria23/3–suspension of international air passenger travel is still in force.
30/3–geographic containment of Abuja, Lagos and Delta states.
23/4 – interstate travel restrictions announced across country.
In other states, varying degrees of geographic containment.
25/3 – closure of schools, colleges and universities.
30/3–countrywide prohibition of gatherings/closures: (i) religious buildings; (ii) non-essential shops; (iii) restaurants, bars and cafes; (iv) recreational parks and facilities.
27/4–relaxation of closures and prohibitions in Lagos, Abuja and Ogun States.
30/3–home confinement in Lagos, Abuja, Delta and Ogun states for 2 weeks, and then extended for another 2 weeks.
16/4 – home confinement in Kano state for 1 week.
21/4 – home confinement in Taraba state.
1/4–delta state announces home confinement and a dawn-to-dusk curfew.
27/4–relaxation of home confinement in Lagos, Abuja and Ogun States.
30/4–relaxation of home confinement in Delta State.
Sierra Leone21/3–international air passenger flights suspended.
27/3 – closure of land borders except for cargo.
Interdistrict travel restrictions have been in place continuously for about a month.
31/3–closure of: i) schools, colleges and universities; ii) churches and mosques/countrywide prohibition of gatherings of >100 people.
Shops, bars, restaurants and cinemas allowed to open till 21:00 hours daily except during lockdowns. Markets kept open. Parks, beaches, sports clubs, gyms kept open but with physical distancing, mandatory use of facemasks and hand washing.
There have been two consecutive stay at home orders lasting 3 days (5–7 April; 3–5 May). A third stay at home for 1 week is expected in end of May.
11/4–countrywide curfew from 21:00 to 06:00 hours.
South Africa15/3–ban on international flights.
27/3 – restrictions on travel within country.
1/5 to 7/5–internal travel restrictions temporarily lifted.
15/3–prohibition of gatherings of >100 people.
18/3–closure: (i) schools, colleges and universities.
27/3 – closures: (i) non-essential shops; (ii) restaurants, bars and cafes; (iii) recreational parks and facilities. Prohibition of all gatherings.
1/5–country moved level 4. Certain industries reopened and more workers allowed to go to work. More shops opened. Sales of alcohol and cigarettes remain prohibited. Restaurants, bars, cafes and recreational parks and facilities remain closed. Schools, colleges and universities remain closed except for controlled return of final year medical students.
27/3 – countrywide home confinement with a strict curfew that included a ban on any exercise outside the home. Some essential activities allowed between 08:00 and 17:00 hours.
1/5–under level 4, everyone is confined to their place of residence from 20:00 to 17:00 hours and persons are allowed to exercise between 06:00 and 09:00 hours provided this is not done in organised groups and within 5 km of home.
Sudan16/3–airports, ports and land crossings shut down.
30/3–interstate public transportation halted.
12/3 – closure: schools
14/3 – closure: universities and colleges.
1/4–countrywide prohibition of sports and cultural events.
2/4: closure in three states: (i) non-essential shops; (ii) restaurants, bars and cafes; (iii) recreational parks and facilities and (iv) worship sites
18/4: closure countrywide: (i) non-essential shops; (ii) restaurants, bars and cafes; (iii) recreational parks and facilities
30/3–countrywide curfew between 18:00 and 06:00 hours.
2/4–home confinement from 13:00 to 07:00 hours in three states (Khartoum, Gezira and Gadaref).
18/4–home confinement extended to whole country for 3 weeks.
9/5 home confinement extended for 5 weeks.
Tanzania12/4–international air travel suspended (but port kept open).
Restrictions have been imposed against unnecessary movements between and within affected regions. Public transport continues from region to region.
23/03–all incoming travellers from COVID-19 affected countries required to be in quarantine for 14 days.
18/5–international flights ban lifted and commercial airlines restarted flights in early June.
27/05–all incoming travellers from COVID-19 affected countries will no longer be quarantined unless they have symptoms of COVID-19.
17/3 – closure: schools (public and private).
19/3 – closure: colleges and universities (public and private).
17/3 – prohibition of gatherings. Marriage and funeral gatherings restricted to 10 people.
21/4–closure: (i) recreational parks and facilities, including cinemas and theatres.
Churches and mosques continue to operate under restriction on observant to COVID-19 preventive measures. Shops and markets remain open. Restaurants, bars and cafes kept open–but bars have to close by 21:00 hours in Dar es Salaam, while some regions like Mwanza enforced closure by 22:00 hours while others did not introduce any such restrictions.
1/6–colleges and form six secondary school students allowed to return to school.
No home confinement except for students and young children who were asked to stay at home.
Self-isolation was encouraged for any person suspected to having interacted with an infected person.
Uganda21/3–airports closed (except for cargo).20/3 – closures: (i) schools, colleges and universities; (ii) non-essential shops; (iii) restaurants, bars and cafes; (iv) recreational parks and facilities; (v) religious buildings and facilities.
20/3 – prohibition of gatherings of 10 or fewer people initially allowed, and then reduced to 5.
30/3 – countrywide home confinement announced, and has continued till mid-June. Curfew from 19:00 to 06:30 hours.
Private transport has been permitted since 25/5 for not more than 3 people (including the driver) per vehicle.
Zambia26/3–one international airport kept open (but three shut).
29/4 – all tourist visas suspended.
11/5 – land border with Tanzania closed.
18/5 – land border crossing with Tanzania opened.
26/3 – closures: (i) non-essential shops; (ii) recreational parks and facilities; (iii) restaurants, bars and cafes (except for take-aways); gatherings only allowed if fewer than 50 people.
1/4 – closures: (i) schools, colleges and universities.
8/5–restaurants, gyms and casinos are allowed to re-open, but bars and taverns remain closed.
No home confinement or curfew implemented.
Zimbabwe23/3–borders closed.
30/3 – in-country travel restrictions.
23/3–gatherings of >100 people prohibited.
30/3 to 03/05–all public gatherings prohibited (except for funerals with fewer than 50 people).
30/3 – closure: (i) schools, colleges and universities; (ii) non-essential shops; (iii) recreational parks and facilities; (iv) restaurants, bars and cafes (except for takeaways).
4/5–formal sector businesses can open from 08:00 to 15:00 hours but not informal sector.
30/3–home confinement begins.
2/5–home confinement extended.