Table 2

Number, proportion and bootstrapped 95% CIs (based on study-level clusters) of standardised patient–provider interactions in health facilities that resulted in prescription or dispensing of antibiotics across strata of key variables

VariableCountry
AllIndiaChinaKenya
n/NProportion
(95% CI)
n/NProportion
(95% CI)
n/NProportion
(95% CI)
n/NProportion
(95% CI)
At least one antibiotic2734/586346.6 (33.4 to 53.9)2392/479849.9 (40.8 to 54.5)259/89928.8 (17.8 to 50.8)83/16650.0 (42.2 to 57.8)
Antibiotics, n
 03129/586353.4 (46.1 to 66.6)2406/479850.1 (45.4 to 57.9)640/89971.2 (49.2 to 71.2)83/16650.0 (42.2 to 57.8)
 12465/586342.0 (31.4 to 47.4)2159/479845.0 (39.8 to 48.2)229/89925.5 (25.5 to 42.8)77/16646.4 (39.2 to 54.2)
 2260/58634.4 (1.6 to 6.5)225/47984.7 (1.4 to 6.6)29/8993.2 (3.2 to 7.7)6/1663.6 (1.2 to 6.6)
 39/58630.2 (0.02 to 0.3)8/47980.2 (0.03 to 0.3)1/8990.1 (0.1 to 0.3)0/1660
Health facility location
 Urban1653/301854.8 (50.0 to 55.2)1570/285255.0 (53.0 to 55.2)83/16650.0 (42.8 to 57.8)
 Rural1081/284538.0 (26.6 to 48.1)822/194642.2 (39.0 to 46.7)259/89928.8 (17.8 to 50.8)
Healthcare sector
 Public443/132133.5 (20.6 to 50.8)156/36742.5 (37.6 to 47.7)259/89928.8 (17.8 to 50.8)28/5550.9 (38.2 to 63.6)
 Private2291/454250.4 (40.8 to 54.5)2236/443150.5 (50.2 to 54.5)55/11149.5 (40.1 to 51.6)
Provider qualification
 Qualified1186/190662.2 (45.4 to 71.3)1115/176863.1 (44.6 to 71.8)71/13851.4 (42.8 to 59.4)NANA
 Non-qualified1358/319142.6 (38.7 to 48.6)1277/303042.1 (37.8 to 47.9)81/16150.3 (42.9 to 57.8)NANA
Clinical presentation
 Angina169/95517.7 (12.2 to 28.3)115/59819.2 (16.8 to 21.1)29/3159.2 (5.9 to 12.4)25/4259.5 (45.2 to 73.8)
 Asthma330/71846.0 (44.0 to 50.2)308/67645.6 (43.5 to 49.0)22/4252.4 (38.1 to 66.7)
 Child diarrhoea490/99749.1 (33.4 to 67.9)399/67259.4 (50.5 to 75.0)78/28527.4 (21.8 to 32.5)13/4032.5 (17.5 to 45.5)
 Presumptive TB1293/225357.4 (51.3 to 58.6)1118/191258.5 (58.4 to 59.3)152/29950.8 (44.8 to 56.2)23/4254.8 (39.3 to 69.0)
 Confirmed TB194/40448.0 (47.7 to 50.0)194/40448.0 (47.7 to 50.0)
 Presumptive MDR-TB258/53648.1 (48.0 to 48.1)258/53648.1 (48.0 to 48.1)
Patient referred for further evaluation*
 Yes101/76713.2 (9.4 to 20.4)65/49813.1 (9.7 to 17.4)33/26312.5 (7.3 to 31.6)3/650.0 (16.7 to 83.3)
 No2163/438450.7 (35.6 to 57.5)1928/362853.1 (38.4 to 58.0)226/63635.5 (23.3 to 55.4)67/12055.8 (47.5 to 64.2)
  • *All child diarrhoea cases from India and Kenya (n=712) were excluded from this analysis because children were not directly assessed by the provider.

  • MDR-TB, multidrug resistant tuberculosis; NA, not available; TB, tuberculosis.