Table 3

Frequency of antibiotics prescribed/dispensed in health facilities across study countries, overall and according to both the AWaRe and ATC classifications

Drug typeIndiaChina
All settingsUrban IndiaRural India
NProportion (95% CI)NProportion (95% CI)NProportion (95% CI)NProportion (95% CI)
Any antibiotic27681896872301
AWaRe classification
 Access87631.6 (30.0 to 38.9)58430.8 (29.8 to 30.8)29233.5 (29.9 to 37.1)12641.9 (36.2 to 47.2)
 Watch131747.6 (26.8 to 54.0)104154.9 (54.9 to 55.4)27631.7 (21.2 to 40.3)9932.9 (27.6 to 37.9)
 Reserve230.8 (0.5 to 1.8)80.4 (0.4 to 0.5)151.7 (1.0 to 2.1)10.3 (0.3 to 1.3)
 Discouraged33412.1 (4.3 to 36.3)502.6 (2.6 to 2.8)28432.6 (25.1 to 44.8)10.3 (0.3 to 1.3)
 Not available*2187.9 (5.4 to 10.8)21311.2 (11.2 to 11.5)50.57 (0.3 to 1.0)7424.6 (19.9 to 29.2)
ATC classification
 Penicillin71125.7 (18.8 to 27.0)53528.2 (27.7 to 28.2)17620.2 (17.6 to 21.7)6822.6 (17.6 to 27.2)
 Cephalosporin36113.0 (8.2 to 14.6)29415.0 (14.9 to 15.0)768.7 (7.8 to 10.7)7524.9 (20.9 to 29.2)
  First generation210.8 (0.6 to 1.8)90.5 (0.47 to 0.51)121.4 (1.1 to 2.1)00
  Second generation220.8 (0.2 to 1.1)201.1 (1.1 to 1.2)20.2 (0.2 to 0.4)72.3 (0.7 to 4.0)
  Third generation31811.5 (7.1 to 12.9)25613.5 (13.3 to 13.5)627.1 (6.4 to 8.1)10.3 (0.3 to 1.0)
  Not available*0000006722.3 (18.3 to 26.6)
 Macrolide42515.4 (4.1 to 19.3)38920.5 (20.4 to 21.3)364.1 (4.1 to 4.3)6019.9 (15.6 to 24.3)
 Quinolone52018.8 (16.6 to 24.2)35418.7 (18.5 to 18.7)16619.0 (18.5 to 26.8)3712.3 (9.0 to 15.9)
 Tetracycline672.4 (1.7 to 4.6)341.8 (1.4 to 1.8)333.8 (3.0 to 4.1)00
 Imidazole†612.2 (0.8 to 7.1)10.05 (0.05 to 0.06)606.9 (6.3 to 7.5)10.3 (0.3 to 1.3)
 Sulfonamide‡180.7 (0.2 to 1.9)30.16 (0.16 to 0.17)151.7 (0.9 to 2.1)93.0 (1.3 to 5.0)
 Aminoglycoside60.2 (0.1 to 1.0)0060.7 (0.7 to 1.3)4515.0 (11.3 to 18.6)
 Combinations§28912.1 (5.1 to 34.2)502.6 (2.6 to 2.8)28432.6 (25.1 to 34.2)10.3 (0.3 to 1.3)
 Antimycobacterial2298.3 (0.3 to 10.9)22611.9 (11.9 to 12.2)30.3 (0.2 to 0.5)10.3 (0.3 to 1.3)
 Other antibiotics361.3 (1.0 to 2.4)191.0 (0.1 to 1.0)171.9 (1.8 to 2.6)41.3 (0.3 to 2.7)
  • The unit of analysis is the individual drug, not the standardised patient–provider interaction.

  • *For these drugs, only the antibiotic class (eg, cephalosporin) was available.

  • †Only metronidazole was prescribed/dispensed.

  • ‡Only trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole was prescribed/dispensed.

  • §This category does not include combinations of antimycobacterial drugs.

  • ATC, Anatomical–Therapeutic–Chemical; AWaRe, Access–Watch–Reserve.