Table 5

Cost per gained quality-adjusted life year (2017 US$)

Upper middleArgentinaAugustovskiPharm plus1432Cluster Randomised control trialCommunity health workers, doctorsMulticomponent strategy that included community health worker home-based intervention, physician education and a text-messaging intervention.Drugs, laboratories, labour, costs of medical visit or screening - not further disaggregated, equipment costs and office supplies, intervention development costs, training costs, health education/promotion/ media costs.Intervention group235.8814 401
Control group124.9914 401
Upper middleChinaChenPharm only - modelledNot applicableHypothetical cohort modelNot specifiedAnalysis of costs of pharmaceutical treatment for high-range prehypertensive patients (130 to 139/85 to 89 mm Hg) without CVD.Drugs, labour and cost of medical visit or screening - not further disaggregated.Treatment with ramipril or candesartan for prehypertension.13 454.188826
Lower middleNigeriaEkwunifePharm only - modelledNot applicableHypothetical cohort modelDoctorsClinical outcomes and costs during a life cycle of 30 years for 1000 people under alternative intervention scenarios for thiazide diuretics (D), beta blockers (BB), ACE inhibitor (ACEI) and calcium channel blocker (CCB). Three different treatment eligibility criteria were analysed: low risk (10-year CVD risk <15%), medium risk (10-year CVD risk 15% to 20%) and high risk (>20%).Drugs, labs, cost of medical visits not further disaggregatedLow risk, D2978.551968
Medium risk, D1489.281968
High risk, D1489.281968
High risk, CCB14 319.971968
Upper middleSouth AfricaGazianoPharm plus - modelledNot applicableHypothetical population-level modelNot specifiedIntervention included screening for HTN and six different eligibility criteria for initiating pharmacological treatment (two BP-based criteria and four risk-based criteria) and a no treatment scenario in which individuals are screened but not treated.Drugs and cost of medical visit or screening - not further disaggregated.No treatment103.046160
Absolute risk >40%103.176160
Absolute risk >30%103.956160
Absolute risk >20%108.066160
Absolute risk >15%112.296160
1995 South African guidelines - target level 160/95113.516160
Current guidelines - target level 140/90119.086160
Upper middleChinaGu*Pharm plus - modelledNot applicableHypothetical population-level modelNot specifiedHypertension screening, essential medicines programme implementation, and hypertension control programme administration, using different treatment eligibility criteria.Drugs, labs, cost of medical visit or screening - not further disaggregated, and side effect costs.Control BP in all persons living with CHD or stroke65.558826
Status quo case65.738826
Treat all stage 2 HTN patients to goal of 140/90 if 35 to 64 and 150/90 if 65 or older72.278826
Treat all stage 2 and stage 1 to goal of 140/90 if 35 to 64 and 150/90 if 65 or older75.168826
Lower middleVietnamNguyen*Pharm plus - modelledNot applicableHypothetical population-level modelDoctorsDifferent intervals for screening (one-off, annual, biannually, biannually until 55 or 60 years old and then annually until death) and varying ages to start screening (35, 45 or 55 years old). Diagnosed patients in both the screening and non-screening scenarios were assumed to be receiving treatment for hypertension at the community health centre and antihypertensive drugs would be prescribed according to the Ministry of Health guidelines.Drugs, cost of medical visit or screening - not further disaggregated, and travel/transportation/per diem.Start screening at 55, man, biannual plus increase coverage by 20%127.32343
Start screening at 55, woman, one-off331.982343
Start screening at 55, man, biannual791.272343
Start screening at 45, man, one-off1594.352343
Start screening at 55, man, annual plus increase coverage by 20%1624.462343
Start screening at 55, woman, biannual plus increase coverage by 20%2830.042343
Start screening at 55, man, annual2911.222343
Start screening at 45, man, biannual plus increase coverage by 20%3900.302343
Start screening at 55, woman, biannual4264.682343
Start screening at 45, woman, one-off4600.482343
Start screening at 45, man, biannual6111.742343
Start screening at 55, woman, annual plus increase coverage by 20%6946.832343
Start screening at 45, man, annual plus increase coverage by 20%9701.402343
Start screening at 55, woman, annual9708.262343
Start screening at 35, man, one-off11 218.382343
Start screening at 45, man, annual14 323.602343
Start screening at 45, woman, biannual plus increase coverage by 20%14 409.742343
Start screening at 35, man, biannual plus increase coverage by 20%19 288.842343
Start screening at 45, woman, biannual19 566.322343
Start screening at 35, man, biannual27 910.452343
Start screening at 45, woman, annual plus increase coverage by 20%30 029.262343
Start screening at 45, woman, annual40 220.822343
Start screening at 35, man, annual plus increase coverage by 20%42 155.922343
Start screening at 35, woman, one-off48 678.532343
Start screening at 35, man, annual60 277.682343
Start screening at 35, woman, biannual plus increase coverage by 20%111 095.982343
Start screening at 35, woman, biannual147 448.132343
Start screening at 35, woman, annual plus increase coverage by 20%218 276.412343
Start screening at 35, woman, annual289 176.352343
Upper middleBrazilObreli-NetoPharm plus200Randomised controlled clinical trialDoctors, nurses, pharmacistsThe control group received the usual care offered by the primary healthcare unit (medical and nurse consultations). The intervention group received the usual care plus a pharmaceutical care intervention.Drugs, labour and cost of medical visit or screening - not further disaggregated.Intervention group206.699821
Control group2031.999821
Upper middleChinaXiePharm only - modelledNot applicableHypothetical population-level modelNot specifiedA computer simulation model to project the consequences and cost-effectiveness of intensive hypertension control (reducing systolic/diastolic BP to 133/76 mm Hg) compared with standard hypertension control (based on the Chinese guidelines for the management of hypertension in 2011, involves the reduction of systolic/diastolic BP to140/90 mm Hg).Drugs, cost of medical visit or screening - not further disaggregated, monitoring costsStandard - all men and all women73.958826
Standard - all men71.948826
Standard - all women76.148826
Intensive - all men and all women85.198826
Intensive - all men83.588826
Intensive - all women87.008826
  • BP, blood pressure; CHD, coronary heart disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; HTN, hypertension; US$, US dollars.