Table 6

Quality assessment of 34 reviewed cost-effectiveness studies

Author(1) Was a well-defined question posed in answerable form?(2) Did the study examine both costs and effects of the service or programme?(3) Did the study involve a comparison of alternatives?(4) Was a viewpoint for the analysis stated?(5) Was a do-nothing alternative considered?(6) Were the capital costs, as well as operating costs, included?(7) Were the cost and consequences valued credibly?(8) Were currencies updated and converted clearly and appropriately?(9) Were costs and consequences that occur in the future discounted to their present value?(10) Was there any justification given for the discount rate used?(11) Were the incremental costs generated by one alternative over another compared with the additional effects generated?(12) Was a sensitivity analysis performed?(13) Did the study discuss the generalisability of the results to other setting and patient/client groups?Total score (out of 13 equally weighted)Type of study design
AlefanNoYesYesYesNoNoYesYesNoNoNoYesYes7Longitudinal
AmiraNoYesYesNoNoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNo3Cross-sectional
Anchala et al47YesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesNoNoYesYes10RCT
Anderson, ANNoYesYesYesNoNoYesYesNoNoYesYesNo7Cross-sectional
Augustovski et al28NoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYes11RCT
Bai et al21NoYesNoYesNoYesYesYesNoNoNoNoYes5Longitudinal
Basu et al33NoYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesNoYesYesYes9Modelled
Cazarim24NoYesNoYesNoYesYesYesNoNoYesYesNo7Longitudinal
Chen et al46NoYesNoYesYesNoYesYesYesNoYesYesYes9Modelled
DasNoYesYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo2Longitudinal
EdwardsNoYesYesNoNoNoYesYesNoNoNoNoNo4Longitudinal
Ekwunife et al42NoYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesNoYesYesYes10Modelled
Gad et al38NoYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYes11Modelled
Gaziano et al34NoYesYesNoYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYes10Modelled
Gu et al31NoYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesNoYesYesYes10Modelled
Ha36NoYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes11Modelled
HeYesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesNoNoYesYesYes10RCT
IlesanmiNoYesYesNoNoNoYesYesNoNoNoNoNo4Cross-sectional
Jafar et al22NoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes12RCT
JiangNoYesYesNoNoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNo3Cross-sectional
Khonputsa et al39NoYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesNoYesYesNo9Modelled
Krishnan et al43YesYesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesNoYesYesYes10Modelled
Lung et al40NoYesNoYesYesNoYesYesYesNoYesYesNo8Modelled
MakkinkNoYesYesYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo3Retrospective cohort study
Murray et al13YesYesYesNoNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes11Modelled
Ngalesoni et al45NoYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesNo10Modelled
Nguyen et al37NoYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesNoYesYesNo9Modelled
OrtegonNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYes11Modelled
PandeyNoYesYesNoNoNoYesYesNoNoNoYesNo5Modelled
PannarunothaaiNoYesNoNoNoYesYesNoNoNoNoNoNo3Retrospective cohort study
PatelNoYesYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo2RCT
PermanYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes13Modelled
Praveen et al49NoYesYesNoYesNoYesNoNoNoYesYesYes7RCT
Robberstad et al35NoYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYes10Modelled
Rosendaal et al44NoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYes11Modelled
Rubinstein et al29NoYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYes11Modelled
Tolla et al41NoYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYes11Modelled
TsujiNoYesYesNoNoNoYesNoNoNoYesNoYes5Longitudinal
VerguetNoYesYesNoYesNoYesYesNoNoNoYesNo6Modelled
Wang, Xin et al48NoYesNoYesYesYesYesYesNoNoYesNoNo7RCT
Wang, ZengwuNoYesYesNoNoNoYesYesNoNoYesNoYes5Longitudinal
Xie et al32NoYesNoNoYesNoYesNoYesNoYesYesYes7Modelled
  • RCT, randomised controlled trial.