Table 2

Determinants of health system confidence and endorsement among respondents who have visited a health facility in the past 12 months

Very confident could get effective care if neededAgrees that the health system works pretty well and only needs minor changes
Adjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Experience with the health system
 Quality of last visit good, very good or excellent4.48 (3.64 to 5.52)2.69 (2.33 to 3.11)
 Ever experienced discrimination0.67(0.5 to 0.80)0.63 (0.53 to 0.76)
 3 or more visits to a health facility1.03 (0.97 to 1.10)1.03 (0.94 to 1.12)
 Has health insurance1.68 (1.49 to 1.90)1.34 (1.22 to 1.48)
 Last visit was to private facility1.00 (0.90 to 1.12)0.89 (0.80 to 1.00)
 Vignette rating of good or better2.08 (1.74 to 2.49)1.43 (1.23 to 1.66)
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Female0.97 (0.87 to 1.07)0.90 (0.77 to 1.07)
 Age (18–29 ref)
 30–490.88 (0.78 to 0.99)0.82 (0.73 to 0.92)
 50+1.16 (0.9 to 1.49)0.89 (0.79 to 1.00)
 Secondary or higher education1.09 (0.87 to 1.36)0.83 (0.66 to 1.04)
 Rural1.33 (1.06 to 1.65)0.99 (0.86 to 1.14)
 Good self-rated health1.74 (1.45 to 2.10)1.25 (1.10 to 1.41)
Country (Senegal ref)
 Argentina0.86 (0.81 to 0.90)1.22 (1.18 to 1.26)
 China0.56 (0.53 to 0.59)1.71 (1.60 to 1.82)
 Ghana2.33 (2.20 to 2.47)1.25 (1.20 to 1.30)
 India1.07 (1.01 to 1.13)1.40 (1.34 to 1.46)
 Indonesia1.19 (1.12 to 1.25)2.51 (2.36 to 2.68)
 Kenya1.79 (1.70 to 1.89)1.60 (1.54 to 1.67)
 Lebanon1.24 (1.18 to 1.30)2.10 (2.00 to 2.20)
 Mexico0.63 (0.61 to 0.65)0.88 (0.85 to 0.91)
 Morocco0.66 (0.63 to 0.68)0.99 (0.94 to 1.05)
 Nigeria3.16 (3.05 to 3.27)1.38 (1.34 to 1.42)
 South Africa2.91 (2.76 to 3.08)1.76 (1.67 to 1.85)
N85318530
  • Results are from multivariable logistic regressions and are in bold if p<0.001. Please see online supplementary appendix 1 for full survey instrument.