Table 1

Profile of women who gave birth in the 5 years preceding the survey residing in urban areas for which ambient air pollution data was available, NationalFamily Health Survey-4, 2015/2016

% or mean (SD)
Characteristics of women/householdn=19 000
Age of women, mean (min–max, SD)27.4 (15–49, 4.8)
% of women with formal education88.4
% of women belonging to the Hindu religion72.3
% of women belonging to scheduled caste/scheduled tribe23.6
% of women belonging to poor household15.1
% of women who have exposure to mass media95.0
% who have a separate room for the kitchen inside the house64.6
% practicing good hygiene55.0
Birth order of the index child, mean (min–max, SD)*1.8 (1–14, 1.1)
Annual PM10 level (μg/m3), mean (min–max, SD)101.0 (24.4–258.7, 52.5)
  • *Computed based on the birth data, n=23 954.

  • PM10, particulate matters of size below 10 µg/m3; SD, Standard Deviation.