Table 1

Sample characteristics and child outcomes over time, Bachpan Cohort, Pakistan

Mean or NSD or %MinMax
Demographic characteristics
 Maternal characteristics
  Number of living children
   Pregnant with first child21931.52
   4 or more647.83
  Educational attainment
   Primary or middle29936.57
   Higher secondary or tertiary17724.08
  Depressive symptoms (PHQ-9; baseline)6.656.26025
  Depression diagnosis (SCID; baseline)27725.34
  Depression diagnosis (SCID; 3 months)11212.88
  Depression diagnosis (SCID; 12 months)14515.93
  Disability (WHO-DAS)9.108.88044
  Perceived stress (PSS-10)15.748.75040
  Any self-reported IPV in the past year (12 months)
   Did not report191.94
  Any self-reported IPV in the past year (24 months)
   Did not report9911.29
 Paternal characteristics
  Educational attainment
  Primary or middle22628.13
  Higher secondary or tertiary13317.37
   Absent in household (3 months)13617.79
   Absent in household (12 months)15720.93
   Currently working (baseline)70692.26
  Grandmother characteristics
   Coresidence with grandchild53567.97
  Household characteristics
   People per room2.351.88023
   Nuclear family9712.58
   Wealth quintiles
    Lower middle15118.70
    Upper middle15421.54
   Child sex: female39951.03
   Child diarrhoea (12 months)
    At least once weekly10212.43
    Every 2 weeks455.71
    Every month9111.91
    Less often than every month53469.95
Child outcomes
 Growth (3 months, n=772)
 Growth (12 months, n=727)
 Growth (24 months, n=712)
 BSITD scaled scores (12 months, n=759)*
  Receptive language8.021.39112
  Expressive language9.181.47113
  Fine motor9.161.68115
  Gross motor8.272.21114
 Socioemotional development (24 months, n=723)*
  ASQ-SE total score14.3229.020180
  • Calculations were based on the total sample of participants present at either 12 months or 24 months (n=772). Means, SD and percentages were based on weighted data to account for both the sampling design in which one in every three non-depressed pregnant women and the inverse probability of missingness.

  • *Higher Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSITD) scores indicate better development and higher Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Socioemotional (ASQ-SE) scores indicate worse development.

  • IPV, Intimate Partner Violence; LAZ, length-for-age z-score; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire; PSS-10, Perceived Stress Scale; SCID, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM; WAZ, weight-for-age z-score; WHO-DAS, World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Scale; WLZ, weight-for-length z-score.