Table 5

Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of the relationship between hospital environment measures and exclusive breastfeeding, assessment in 150 hospitals, eight countries, 2016–2017

Independent variableTerm babies (N=1383)
Not EBF, n (%)EBF, n (%)Bivariate OR (95% CI)P valueMultivariate OR (95% CI)P value
Rooming-in practice
 Baby did not stay with the mother during the entire hospital stay35 (48.0)38 (52.0)11
 Baby stayed with the mother during the entire hospital stay (rooming in)193 (14.7)1117 (85.3)5.33 (3.29 to 8.65)<0.0015.85 (3.46 to 9.88)<0.001
Infant formula company-sponsored products
 Infant formula company-sponsored products present15 (75.0)5 (25.0)11
 No infant formula company-sponsored products present213 (15.6)1148 (84.4)16.17 (5.82 to 44.96)<0.00117.50 (5.92 to 51.74)<0.001
Hospital policy on prohibiting use of infant formula company products
 No written policy presented173 (20.4)674 (79.6)11
 Posted written policy prohibiting use of infant formula company products55 (10.3)481 (89.7)2.24 (1.62 to 3.11)<0.0012.82 (1.97 to 4.02)<0.001
Promotional infant formula company materials inside hospital
 Having promotional materials visible8 (25.8)23 (74.2)11
 No promotional materials visible220 (16.3)1132 (83.7)1.79 (0.79 to 4.05)0.161.60 (0.68 to 3.75)0.28
Hospital’s EENC quality control mechanism
 Not having a EENC quality improvement approach198 (17.9)905 (82.1)11
 EENC quality improvement approach established30 (10.7)250 (89.3)1.82 (1.21 to 2.74)0.0041.63 (1.07 to 2.49)0.02
  • EBF, exclusive breastfeeding; EENC, early essential newborn care.