Table 1

Sample characteristics by condom use outcomes (n=318)

Total sampleConsistent condom use in the past yearχ2 or t-testCondom use at last sexual anal intercourseχ2 or t-test
n (%) or M (SD)Never/occasionally
n (%) or M (SD)
All the time
n (%) or M (SD)
No
n (%) or M (SD)
Yes
n (%) or M (SD)
Total318 (100.00)257 (80.31)63 (19.69%)184 (57.50)136 (42.50)
Control variables
 Gender
  Transgender women139 (43.71)117 (45.88)22 (34.92)0.1184 (46.15)55 (40.44)0.31
  Cisgender men179 (56.29)138 (54.12)41 (65.08)98 (53.85)81 (59.56)
 Age
  18–2485 (26.73)70 (27.45)15 (23.81)0.5052 (28.57)33 (24.26)0.10
  25–29113 (35.53)90 (35.29)23 (36.51)63 (34.62)50 (36.76)
  30–3456 (17.61)54 (21.18)18 (28.57)34 (18.68)38 (27.94)
  35+64 (20.12)41 (16.08)7 (11.11)33 (18.13)15 (11.03)
  Location
  Manila255 (80.19)201 (78.82)54 (85.71)0.21148 (81.32)107 (78.68)0.55
  Cebu63 (19.81)54 (21.18)9 (14.29)34 (18.68)29 (21.32)
 Past year income
  No income54 (16.98)43 (16.86)11 (17.46)0.0736 (19.78)18 (13.24)0.41
  Less than P10 00074 (23.27)65 (25.49)9 (14.29)45 (24.73)29 (21.32)
  P10 000–P20 00065 (20.44)54 (21.18)11 (17.46)36 (19.78)29 (21.32)
  P20 000–P30 00041 (12.89)34 (13.33)7 (11.11)22 (12.09)19 (13.97)
  P30 000 or more84 (26.42)59 (23.14)25 (39.68)43 (23.63)41 (30.15)
Structural-level variables
 LGBT violence11.41 (9.89)11.77 (9.89)9.96 (9.85)0.1911.53 (9.75)11.25 (10.11)0.79
 LGBT discrimination0.71 (1.32)0.73 (1.35)0.63 (1.23)0.590.84 (1.42)0.53 (1.16)0.03*
 HIV stigma37.15 (8.52)36.73 (8.59)38.84 (8.07)0.0737.01 (8.47)37.33 (8.61)0.73
 Lack of antidiscrimination clinic policy for LGBT patients
  Yes102 (32.09)89 (34.90)13 (20.63)0.03*67 (36.81)35 (25.74)0.04*
  No216 (67.92)166 (65.10)50 (79.37)115 (63.19)101 (74.26)
 Lack of antidiscrimination clinic policy for patients living with HIV
  Yes100 (31.45)89 (34.90)11 (17.46)0.008**67 (36.81)33 (24.26)0.01*
  No218 (68.55)166 (65.10)52 (82.54)115 (63.19)103 (75.74)
Environmental-level variables
 Avoided HIV services—travel
  Yes180 (56.60)147 (57.65)33 (52.38)0.45104 (57.14)76 (55.88)0.82
  No138 (43.40)108 (42.35)30 (47.62)78 (24.86)60 (44.12)
 Avoided HIV services—cost
  Yes176 (55.35)138 (54.12)38 (60.32)0.3793 (51.10)83 (61.03)0.07
  No142 (44.65)117 (45.88)25 (39.68)89 (48.90)53 (38.97)
 Avoided HIV services—lack of competent provider
  Yes231 (72.64)177 (69.41)54 (85.71)0.009**122 (67.03)109 (80.15)0.009**
  No87 (27.36)78 (30.59)9 (14.29)60 (32.97)27 (19.85)
 Avoided getting condom—cost
  Yes83 (26.10)75 (29.41)8 (12.70)0.007**54 (29.67)29 (21.32)0.094
  No235 (73.90)180 (70.59)55 (87.30)128 (70.33)107 (78.68)
 Avoided getting condom—distance
  Yes53 (16.67)45 (17.65)8 (12.70)0.3430 (16.48)23 (16.91)0.91
  No265 (83.33)210 (82.35)55 (87.30)152 (83.52)113 (83.09)
 Avoided getting condom—stigma
  Yes83 (26.10)68 (26.67)15 (23.81)0.6445 (24.72)38 (27.94)0.51
  No235 (73.90)187 (73.33)48 (76.19)137 (75.27)98 (72.06)
 Avoided getting condom—no privacy
  Yes78 (24.53)64 (25.10)14 (22.22)0.6346 (25.27)32 (23.53)0.72
  No240 (75.47)191 (74.90)49 (77.78)136 (74.73)104 (76.47)
Social-level variables
 Social cohesion32.51 (7.04)32.01 (7.08)34.55 (6.53)0.01*31.54 (7.09)33.82 (6.78)0.004**
 Social participation general6.55 (2.45)6.45 (2.41)6.93 (2.57)0.166.49 (2.50)6.63 (2.39)0.62
 Social participation LGBT8.42 (3.60)8.20 (3.58)9.33 (3.57)0.02*8.19 (3.67)8.73 (8.14)0.18
Personal-level variables
 Self-efficacy in condom initiation26.04 (3.69)25.60 (3.70)27.80 (3.08)<0.001***25.37 (3.70)26.93 (3.48)<0.001***
 Self-efficacy in condom negotiation32.12 (12.85)30.42 (12.88)38.98 (10.24)<0.001***29.55 (13.62)35.54 (10.87)<0.001***
 Consistent condom use
  All the time63 (19.69)6 (3.26)57 (41.91)<0.001***
  Never/occasionally257 (80.31)178 (96.74)79 (58.09)
 Condom use at last sex
  Yes136 (42.50)79 (30.74)57 (90.48)<0.001***
  No184 (57.50)178 (69.26)6 (9.52)
  • Column percentages are reported. Sample sizes stratified by variables may not add up to total sample size due to missingness. No differences were found in outcomes by gender age, location, and income.

  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • LGBT, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender.