Table 2

Difference-in-difference analysis for primary and secondary intervention outcomes (n=312)

Exit survey outcome (immediate post intervention)
Control (n=155) mean (SD)Intervention (n=157) mean (SD)P valueDifference intervention to control†
Coefficient (95% CI)
Safety preparedness34.52 (6.69)36.05 (5.94)0.031.42**
(0.03 to 2.82)
Primary outcomes at 3-month follow-up
Baseline
n (%) mean (SD)
3-month follow-up
n (%) mean (SD)
Difference baseline to follow-up OR/coefficient (95% CI)‡Interaction effect
OR/b (95% CI)§
Control (n=155)Intervention (n=157)Control (n=155)Intervention (n=157)Control
(n=155)
Intervention
(n=157)
Effect estimate (n=312)P value for interaction
Use of safety strategies2.69
(1.24)
2.73
(1.28)
2.54
(1.39)
2.90
(1.35)
−0.15
(−0.39 to 0.08)
0.17
(−0.08 to 0.41)
0.32
(−0.01 to 0.66)
0.06
Helpfulness of safety strategies used3.14
(1.12)
3.12
(1.19)
3.11
(1.07)
3.51
(1.12)
−0.03
(−0.23 to 0.17)
0.40***
(0.18 to 0.62)
0.43
(0.14 to 0.73)
0.004
Decisional conflict summary24.24
(9.73)
23.27
(10.17)
21.99
(10.57)
19.13
(10.84)
2.26*
(−4.21 to −0.31)
4.60***
(−6.60 to −2.60)
−2.33
(−5.11 to 0.44)
0.10
Uninformed9.94
(4.70)
10.02
(4.84)
9.19
(4.84)
7.76
(5.13)
−0.74
(−1.69 to 0.20)
−2.26***
(−3.27 to −1.26)
−1.52
(−2.89 to −0.15)
0.03
Unclear values4.01
(2.35)
3.88
(2.36)
3.58
(2.24)
3.15
(2.35)
0.43 (−0.92 to 0.06)0.73**
(−1.18 to −0.27)
−0.29
(−0.96 to 0.37)
0.38
Lack of support6.33
(3.29)
5.91
(3.34)
5.76
(3.47)
5.30
(3.25)
−0.57***
(−1.21 to −0.08)
0.60 (−1.52 to 0.04)0.04
(−0.94 to 0.87)
0.94
Uncertainty4.17
(2.49)
3.99
(2.72)
3.36
(2.48)
2.97
(2.49)
−0.82**
(−1.29 to −0.34)
−1.01***
(−1.54 to −0.49)
−0.19
(−0.90 to 0.51)
0.59
IPV
CTS summary score12.36
(4.47)
12.63
(4.99)
9.25
(5.52)
9.76
(5.74)
3.11***
(−3.85 to −2.36)
2.87***
(−3.64 to −2.09)
0.24
(−0.83 to 1.30)
0.66
 Any physical violence152
(98.06)
155
(98.73)
144
(92.90)
144
(91.72)
0.26**
(0.08 to 0.78)
0.14**
(0.03 to 0.65)
0.55
(0.08 to 3.66)
0.54
 Any sexual violence144
(92.90)
141
(89.81)
123
(79.35)
124
(78.98)
0.29***
(0.16 to 0.55)
0.43**
(0.25 to 0.72)
1.45
(0.64 to 3.29)
0.37
 Both physical and sexual violence142
(91.61)
140
(89.17)
120
(77.42)
122
(77.71)
0.31***
(0.18 to 0.55)
0.42**
(0.25 to 0.72)
1.35
(0.62 to 2.93)
0.45
WEB summary score52.16
(9.24)
50.71
(11.52)
47.38
(12.67)
49.26
(11.28)
4.78***
(−6.55 to −3.01)
−1.45
(−3.37 to 0.46)
3.33
(0.74 to 5.92)
0.01
Reproductive coercion117
(80.69)
123
(82.55)
107
(72.33)
113
(74.34)
0.62*
(0.41 to 0.96)
0.61*
(0.39 to 0.97)
0.98
(0.52 to 1.83)
0.94
Secondary outcomes at 3-month follow-up
Resilience19.29
(7.92)
17.78
(7.98)
17.33
(7.68)
17.95
(9.56)
1.96**
(−3.42 to −0.50)
0.17
(−1.47 to 1.82)
2.13
(−0.05 to 4.32)
0.06
Relationship quality3.65
(2.81)
4.32
(3.04)
4.92
(3.09)
4.80
(2.91)
1.26***
(0.68 to 1.85)
0.48
(−0.05 to 1.02)
−0.78
(−1.57 to 0.00)
0.05
Depression
Mean (SD)20.76
(5.46)
20.49
(5.78)
18.78
(6.43)
18.32
(6.19)
1.98***
(−2.93 to −1.02)
2.17***
(−3.28 to −1.05)
−0.18
(−1.64 to 1.27)
0.80
 Clinically depressed (score above 10)149
(96.13)
151
(96.18)
142
(91.61)
145
(92.36)
0.44*
(0.20 to 0.95)
0.47
(0.18 to 1.27)
1.09
(0.31 to 3.80)
0.89
Considered seeking any IPV-related services106
(79.10)
100
(75.19)
90
(71.43)
97
(69.29)
0.67
(0.40 to 1.12)
0.74
(0.44 to 1.24)
1.13
(0.50 to 2.32)
0.75
Sought IPV-related services109
(70.32)
118
(75.16)
109
(70.32)
118
(75.16)
1.00
(1.00 to 1.00)
1.00
(1.00 to 1.00)
1.00
(1.00 to 1.00)
1.00
Self-blame6.31
(1.99)
5.94
(2.16)
6.21
(1.93)
6.06
(1.97)
−0.10
(−0.52 to 0.32)
0.13
(−0.28 to 0.53)
0.23
(−0.35 to 0.81)
0.44
Recognition of abuse19.26
(4.73)
19.42
(4.58)
18.94
(5.17)
18.65
(5.39)
−0.32
(−1.21 to 0.57)
−0.78
(−1.64 to 0.09)
−0.46
(−1.69 to 0.77)
0.46
Self-efficacy
 Generalised18.44
(4.40)
18.58
(4.20)
19.13
(4.09)
19.04
(4.57)
0.69
(−0.09 to 1.47)
0.46
(−0.36 to 1.27)
−0.23
(−1.35 to 0.88)
0.68
Safety specific11.58
(1.73)
11.61
(1.72)
12.09
(1.66)
11.98
(1.92)
0.51**
(0.16 to 0.85)
0.38*
(0.03 to 0.72)
−0.13
(−0.62 to 0.36)
0.60
Danger assessment11.58
(3.63)
10.78
(3.97)
−0.80**
(−1.43 to −0.17)
  • Italics indicate continuous outcomes where mean, SD and linear regression (coefficients) were calculated

  • P values across study arm are χ2 (binary outcomes) and t-test (continuous outcomes).

  • P value significance for difference in differences: =p<0.10; *=p<0.05; **=p<0.01; ***=p<0.001.

  • †Linear regression comparing intervention to control group for exit survey safety preparedness, adjusting for baseline decisional conflict and site.

  • ‡Adjusted for site.

  • §Effect size estimate comparing intervention to control group between baseline and follow-up; ORs for interaction term (binary outcomes) and linear regression b from interaction term (continuous outcomes).

  • CI, confidence interval; CTS, Conflicts and Tactics Scale; IPV, intimate partner violence; OR, odds ratio; WEB, Women’s Experiences of Abuse.