Table 1

Summary of the themes

Mental distressCausal attributionsCoping strategyReported effectiveness
Ibikomere
(wounded feelings)
LossRegaining partially what was lost (eg, social support)Improvement to well-being and accepting difficulties
Excessive thinking about the lossAvoiding the triggerPreventing excessive thinking, generating hope, social interactions
Changing circumstances
Prayer
Ihungabana/IhahamukaUnexpected extreme form of lossRegaining partially what was lost (eg, social support)Improvement to well-being
(mental disturbance/trauma)Direct excessive thinking about the lossAvoiding the triggerPreventing remembering
Magical forcesPrayerImprovement to well-being
Traditional healing
Witnessing genocideHospital biomedical supportReducing the distressed state
Kurwara mu mutweMagical forcesTraditional healingReducing the distressed state, including hallucinations.
(illness of the head/severe mental illness)Biomedical causesHospital biomedical support
Family support