Table 2

Estimates of select comorbidities of prolonged obstructed labour

Median (IQR)Mean (SD)Median (IQR)Mean (SD)
Fistula sequelaeNeonatal sequelae
 Urinary tract fistula23.98 (54.75)39.44 (35.28) Infant with sequelae of intrapartum hypoxia13.63 (16.02)25.64 (28.75)
 Colorectal tract fistula6.67 (5.56)11.48 (13.96) Stillborn child66.41 (69.7)53.08 (36.49)
Pelvic floor sequelaeGenitourinary sequelae
 Incontinence without fistula7.66 (7.19)13.15 (14.75) Self-reported infertility9.57 (14.4)19.86 (21.89)
 Incontinence with fistula8.6 (15)24.25 (29.91) Infertility due to cervical issues7.07 (5.9)13 (16.01)
 Prolapse without incontinence7.69 (7.64)15.76 (19.91) Vaginal fibrosis or stenosis8.92 (11.15)17.04 (20.84)
 Prolapse with incontinence6.53 (5.44)14.4 (21.86) Secondary renal disease5.74 (4.78)7.21 (6.49)
Infectious or inflammatory sequelaeMusculoskeletal sequelae
 Osteomyelitis5.33 (4.44)7.09 (9.37) Foot drop7.22 (6.02)13.47 (17.68)
 Sepsis9.62 (12.96)19.38 (23.17) Diastasis pubis6.04 (5.04)9.36 (13.29)
 Necrotising fasciitis7.02 (5.85)11.39 (13.92) Chronic pelvic pain11.28 (12.77)17.35 (18.3)
 Other inflammatory disease7.08 (5.9)11.43 (16.15)
Social sequelaePsychological sequelae
 Suffer from abandonment38.54 (49.28)41.57 (30.4) Anxiety or depression symptoms23.29 (31.16)33.6 (27.18)
 Suffer from stigma43.57 (58.67)45.13 (33.34) PTSD symptoms14.83 (17.58)25.1 (25.92)
 Unable to maintain pre-fistula income59.88 (59.73)52.81 (32.77) Grieving for stillborn24.1 (41.8)36.82 (31.61)
 Dissolution of partnership45.63 (54.33)46.31 (31.8) Other psychiatric disorders7.25 (6.04)13.83 (17.22)
  • PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder.